Furthermore, social ethics has more to do with what is good and right for a society to do and how it should act as a whole. It is a general set of unwritten guidelines with regards to direct dealings with other people so as not to harm others in order to have a well-functioning society (Cagadas
sacrificing some individual rights for state protection. It refers broadly to a situation whereby a legitimate state authority is derived from the consent of the government. Another definition of a social contract can be explained as the voluntary agreement among individuals by which according to any various theories such as Hobbes, Locke or Rousseau organised society is brought into being and invested with the right to secure mutual protection and welfare or to regulate the relations among its members. This concept of a social contract theory is that in the beginning humans lived in the state nature, they had no government to regulate them and to overcome these hardships they had to agree to live together under common laws and enforce the social contract and the laws that constitute it. Therefore the government came into being because of the two agreements.
An effective government needs to establish and consistently maintain absolute authority for the safety the commonwealth, in so doing, the safety of the sovereign. If each individual is to decide for themselves whether to obey the government or not, uprisings and resistance against the government will occur, resulting in dissenting disagreements and civil war. Secondly, what is said to be actions of “goodness” and what is said to be actions of “evil”, are legislated by the civil law, who is representative of the Commonwealth. Hence, if every private individual was to be his own judge of what is good and evil, debates and disputes would arise concerning what the sovereign has decreed regarding actions in the prior regards. The commonwealth would thus be distracted and
Adjustment as an achievement, on the other hand, determines how effectively one conducts and performs his duties in different situations and circumstances. For the progress and well-being of any nation, it needs efficient and well-adjusted men. But if adjustment is interpreted in terms of achievement, there has to be a set criteria to judge the quality of the same. The concept of adjustment can be explained further as a relationship between an individual and the environment. This can be seen by the roles or position that every individual holds in his social relations.
Some 350 years ago, British philosopher John Locke made the claim that humans have a duty to obey the laws of whatever country one resides in simply because by residing in these countries, each resident has tacitly consented to obeying the laws of their respective country’s laws. The idea of tacit consent is central to Locke’s theory of political obligation because it is the foundation of the relationship between a state and its citizens, and whether there is a natural sense of trust between the government and the body politic. In a Lockean society, a sovereign power is, to a large extent, accountable for its people; however, their power is also restricted by Locke’s law of nature, which states that all men are free “to order their actions
In 1972, Rousseau argued for the social contract which was meant to rectify the social and moral vices brought in the society due to development. He was very concerned about the history of mankind and how they ought to live together. He argues that when man was born he was free but now he is in chains. He further argues that mankind is and ought to live in a generally free nature but civilization has curbed that freedom and human authenticity through economic and social inequality. In order to restore freedom to mankind, Rousseau suggests there has to be a social contract.
While the rules were limiting the full potential of its people, it is important to keep in mind that they did have food, shelter, and support from their brothers, so some of the more socialistic ideas might actually be contributory to a new society. In the novel it says “...everything which is not permitted by law is forbidden (31).”” Rules and laws should not tell people everything that they can do, they should tell them everything that they can't do. Laws in the United States are like this and Prometheus will probably make his new society based on many on the same principles that there is in the U.S.. Furthermore, the House of Vocations assigns people in the City the occupation that they do for their whole lifetime. Prometheus will allow them to choose their own job in the new society because it will allow them to be happier throughout their whole lives.
How can an individual remain free while submitting to the authority of a state? After all, the whole concept of a social contract is to give up individual freedom for the sake security. Rousseau’s solution to this dilemma is the idea of general will. A social contract based upon “general will” can save the individual freedom, in addition to providing security. Rousseau would argue that as the general will is the collected will of the community, and by following the general will each individual will be following himself.
The social contract theory explains that society was based on a “social contract” which involved people agreeing to give up some of their individual freedoms in order to live together under a system of laws and government. By accepting this social contract, man left the state of nature and entered political society. It has also been highlighted that governments do not get established on the basis of a social contract, but arise by either habit or force. Bentham therefore wished to overcome the theory of a social contract, in order to establish society and its laws on observable realities and utilitarian
In order to maintain these relations properly a system of rights and duties is organized which will avoid any conflict between the members of society and allow them to develop as components to each other. In order to avoid any breach of this harmony between the individuals in the society, the society applies numerous kinds of control over individual. They are taught to obey the elders, have sympathy for the young and for others. A strict