While Rousseau’s contract originated first, it is classified as being prescriptive as well as descriptive. This means his theories in The Social Contract, are how Rousseau believes society should be conducted. Mills’ Racial Contract, on the other hand, is strictly descriptive, meaning he does not believe this is the exact way that societies should be managed. On page two of The Social Contract, Rousseau states, “Even if each man could alienate himself, he could not alienate his children: they are born men and free; their liberty belongs to them, and no one but they have the right to dispose of it” (Rousseau, Pg. 4).
Like physical capital, which can be applied for particular intentions, social capital is suitable in the sense that an actor's system of, say, friendship ties can be applied for other aims, like information collection. Furthermore, social capital can be "converted" to other forms of capital: the benefits conferred through one's position in a social system can be changed into economic or other benefits. Among the particular types of capital recognised through Bourdieu, economic capital is most important; it is convertible into culture, human, and social capital. In contrast, the "convertibility rate" of social capital into economic capital is not high, since social capital is less liquid and further "sticky" (Anheier, Gerhards, & Romo, 1995; Smart,
Prominent researchers such as Coleman, Burt, Lin, Bourdieu and Putman developed this theory in the early 1990s (Fine 2008:1). The term social capital can be traced back to the theory of social science where the term is defined as resources people provided one another to solve problems on the basis of mutual assistance and trust-based social relationship. It encompasses the resources people might have within a community or an organization based on the specific relationships people holds with others: the knowledge people have that can instrumentalise through the relationships with others: and the knowledge and information, which are embedded within social networks, such as those within and amongst families and mutual acquaintances (Bourdieu
Donald Black (1984) and Alan Horwitz (1990) argued that, moreover, that Social Control involves both formal control semanating from the state and a host of informal reactions and interventions at nongovernmental levels of society, including, for example, the power of gossip.Notably, Horwitz emphasizes that Social Control does not require the existence of consensus regarding the definitions of appropriate behavior. Cooney, too, acknowledges that the state, where it exists, forms merely a part of society and that top-down and bottom-up perspectives are equally important.His aim is to outline a formal theory of conflict. Admittedly, Social Control involves more than just regulating, repressing, or preventing the strife between two parties. The policing of men’s and women’s morals, for example,even in the absence of discord, falls outside Cooney’s framework. Yet, for a large part, Social Control has to do with regulating conflicts in one way or another.So-called third parties are the central feature in Cooney’s theory.
He believed that the situation was not entirely bleak because we are intelligent beings who can overcome the State of nature by forming states and creating civil society. Hobbes believed that if each individual shares the same views about acquiring peace and mutual co-operation then they can construct a social contract that will grant them immunity from the State of Nature. A social contract can be broken apart into two phases: the first is that people must mutually agree to establishing a society collectively by acknowledging each other’s right to live equally and the second phase is that they must agree to submit to the authority of an individual or group who will in turn make sure that the first phase of the social contract will be carried out. This is done so that those people who choose to engage in a social contract with one another can have surety that even if their counterparts fail to reciprocate the social contract terms then the authority in charge will enforce certain laws that will punish and deter people from going against the social contract. Since a state will be granted the authority to enforce punishments for those who breach the social contract then people will begin adjusting their lifestyles to in accordance with the social contract unlike in the State of Nature wereby there was no officially authority to rule and enforce order so that people can co-operate despite their differences.
In this case, reality is a structure built by society. To me, social constructs are systems or concepts created by society that are unique to society and vary by society. The core concept of social constructs is that these systems or concepts only exist because
He believed that the situation was not entirely bleak because we are intelligent beings who can overcome the State of nature by forming states and creating civil society. Hobbes believed that if each individual shares the same views about acquiring peace and mutual co-operation then they can construct a social contract that will grant them immunity from the State of Nature. A social contract can be broken apart into two phases: the first is that people must mutually agree to establishing a society collectively by acknowledging each other’s right to live equally and the second phase is that they must agree to submit to the authority of an individual or group who will in turn make sure that the first phase of the social contract will be carried out. This is done so that those people who choose to engage in a social contract with one another can
Social Construction Social constructs or community constructions divide repercussions, ideas, or proposals that are allocated to protests and occasions in the nature 's domain and to individuals ' admitted intelligence of their connections to and associations with these items. Social construction can likewise illuminate as a social machine, wonder, or classification made and created by society or a view of a different, gathering, or thought that is "developed" through social or social practice. In the area of social constructionist thought, a social construct is a thought or idea that seems, by all accounts, to be common and clear to individuals who acknowledge it yet could conceivably speak to reality, so it remains generally an innovation
Coleman (1988) defines social capital by its function which consists of some aspects of social structures and it facilitates certain kind of action of individuals within the structure. It is a relational category i.e. social capital comes about through changes in the relation among persons that facilitate action. Social capital (at individual level) also refers to a system of interpersonal networks (Dasgupta, 2002). So one can expect that the ‘elite group’ in which is abler than others in terms of investment in human capital is a result of greater formation of social capital.