Crime has a significant impact that leaves a negative reputation for all who live in that particular neighborhood. When using the social disorganization theory as a base, it is seen through rapid change, competition, and social structure, that poor neighborhoods tend to have a higher level
Social learning and subcultural accounts of criminality reflect those crimes that are more likely to be committed by the working class-poor and middle. These two theories require a level of social interactions with in member of a society. This interaction is a rather negative one since it leads to no other than deviancy. Divency according to these theories occurs either from an earlier point in life or later on. Important to note, deviance is not a daily norm.
People are even afraid to come near their neighborhood, they fear that they will be attacked. The residents of Mango Street are talked about as criminals, just because of their race and their poverty. As a result of being Hispanic, Esperanza and those around her are viewed by other, higher classes, as a minority. Hispanics at that time made less money and were seen as lessers compared to people in the higher class. Higher class people believed they were superior to her.
This means that if another people see another committing an illegal act, they are more likely to report it to the authority. As a result, African Americans are more likely to live in communities with concentration of poverty, low levels of educational attainment, low income and joblessness (Wilson,
Moreover, people at the low end of social status, poor, are more likely to get arrested for the crimes. However, we all know or sometimes believe that crime is not always evenly spread throughout the social classes. Poor people are more likely to commit crimes, and blacks are more likely to commit crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and other index crimes (Kornblum ,5.4). Sometimes in society, we see that rich people get a slap on the wrist when they commit a crime; whereas poor people get the whole book at their neck it
Forgiveness itself includes individual transformation of the victims that can free the pain of the past thereby healing the wounds caused by the crime. The decision to forgive has multifaceted explanations. Often, the victims themselves find it difficult to identify clearly the reason or reasons that led them to forgive and also it is common that there is more than one cause. Restorative justice seeks to uphold the humanization of the consequences of crime, encouraging the postulation of accountability on the part of the perpetrator of the crime to the victim or their kin, thus laying the foundation for a better future that rests on and is aware of the past, but is not attached to the past as in the case of concept of guilt in criminal
Police officers that make wrong choices tend to be less appreciated by the society, those who make the use of discretion effectively tend to have a positive impact in the community. The article Organizational-level police discretion states that, “officers with a great deal of discretion at their disposal may allow biases to affect their decision making. Such biases could convince an officer that one suspect is more dangerous than another, prompting preemptive use of lethal force, and many of these biases invoke extralegal factors, such as race (Nowacki, 2015, Pg. 646).” Teaching these officers how and when to use discretion is crucial because it will allow them to apply certain strategies to different cases. Officers understand that not all situations will always be easy, either some may be dangerous; others can be simply misunderstandings between cases.
“The subculture of poverty thesis is that the values of the poor either directly cause crime, because people socialized into particular sets of values, norms, and beliefs engage in crime rather than patiently wait for legitimate opportunities, or indirectly cause crime because their values do not attach sufficient importance to such things as education and hard work”(Crutchfield). This is saying because people are poor and go directly to committing crimes instead of trying to work towards opportunities. They should be trying to do better for themselves and they should be focusing on trying to get a job or trying to get good grades to get into
HOMELESSNESS IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA INTRODUCTION The topic that has gained much concern from both economic and ethical perspective. In view of social perspective, witnessing people on the streets to fend for themselves can be seen as an immoral act which leads to the idea that society should take steps and care for these people. Health of the community and its economic prosperity can be measured by the rate of homelessness in that community.
Especially poorer whites feared that, following Claudia Johnson argumentation, the “breakdown of the class and, especially racial boundaries” (Threatening Boundaries 4) would deteriorate their standard of living, which is the case in Maycomb’s society as especially the family of the victim is considered “white trash” (Lee 33). 3.1.1 Social Coexistence in Maycomb Maycomb in To Kill a Mockingbird is segregate in its diverse class stratification and reflects the social, economic and political atmosphere in the United States at that time. The wealth belongs to a small white upper class, the rest is divided into different classes and increments, but poor whites feel they are in competition with blacks for a decent living and the whites-only advantage was their skin color. Generally, there is the idea that segregation results in discrimination, but Deborah Kenn argues that “indeed, discrimination is one of the most powerful enforces for segregation” (2). This discrimination starts with the low income of blacks, followed by housing prizes and segregated education.
In regards to black men coming into the country from the Caribbean, these depictions of selves are altered. Instead the man’s first self is portrayed through his interactions with friends, family and others who identify as Caribbean, whereas the second self is how he acts with law enforcement or people who are granted some form of authority. The second self involves a change in vocal expressions, body posture and a change in personality traits to come across as “more Canadian” when conforming to the preferred image of “The Street”. Anderson’s code can be used as a general framework when analyzing “The Street” as a instrument police use to govern marginalized groups, however Goffman’s presentation of the self consists of a framework that makes sense of why it is important to attempt to manage impressions when interacting with law enforcement. Goffman’s describes human action being understood by seeing people as actors on a social stage whom create an impression of themselves for an audience.
This article talks about Black Criminal Stereotypes and Racial Profiling. It begins explaining how racial profiling was always apart of American culture but after the civil war, blacks started to become more involved in racial profiling when it came to crime. The word “criminal predator” started to become a way to describe young black males. It is stated that this bad reputation that they have dates back to the enslavement of Africans in the United States. Blacks are seen as physically threatening because of their “biological flow”.
There are many reasons where incarceration may lead to higher crime in a community. High incarceration rates damage a community’s stability, and these high rates weaken the power of informal social control in ways that cause an increase in crime. When people are released back into the community, but are then sent back to prison, this cycle keeps going, which causes residential insecurity, which is also associated with social disorganization theory. High imprisonment rates breaks down neighborhood dynamics, which also increases crime. Families become unstable, political and economic systems become weakened, and social networks are broken down.