Imagine this, the hard rocks underneath your feet. The wind blowing in your face, and hot lava streaming through the area. Lava rocks tumble down the bigger rocks with the sound of the lava popping, reminding you of the candy pop rocks. The steam flowing up like your boiling water and needing clean water badly. Keeping eyes out watching for predators, located in the mountains of Hawaii. Volcano Kilauea is the oldest volcano in the world and is 300,000 to 600,000 years old. It 's a big rock that is always surrounded by lava day and night. What if you lived here? How would you survive? The main impacts in this environment are animals, air quality, and humans.
Studying captive primates can help us learn not only how they behave, but also how they are similar or different to each other and humans as well as give us insight into the effects of captivity. This paper will be describing, comparing, and contrasting the behavior of two species of captive primates at the Alexandria Zoo, golden lion tamarins and howler monkeys, as well as discussing the possible effects captivity could have had on them. This paper will also discuss any human-like behaviors observed in the two primate species and what we as humans could learn about our own behavior by studying primates.
I chose to read the annotated article titled Rats To The Rescue annotated by Chantal Bodkin-Clarke. Generally speaking the article discussed and reflected upon the idea that non-mammal primates help another in distress. Non-mammal primates being mammals that are not a member of a collection of animals that don 't contain humans. For example apes and monkeys. However attempts to discover why these actions occurred remained unknown. The study conducted was rats attempting to learn how to open cages that they “knew” contained a trapped rat. After the study was conducted they found that rats “helping behavior” occurred after freeing with no social interaction. With this information they needed to figure out whether non-primate animals are capable
Charles Darwin , a naturalist, discovered and stated that organisms arise and grow and develop through the natural selection. Natural selection is the process in which nearby organisms well adapted to the environment to survive and to produce offspring.
There is one thing in the woods that is really exciting and that is turkey hunting. Turkeys will get your heart racing and you blood rushing and have you shaking in just five seconds. When he comes up there strutting,spitting,and drumming, that’s when it gets real. When you hit that “yawt yawt” and he cuts you off gobbling that is when you know that he is just as good as dead. I am gonna tell plenty of turkey hunting experiences that i have had so i do not have to have a works cited page or nothing. The only works cited i need is my mind and memory. You can also tells a few lies when you are turkey hunting too. Just like fishing.
Exploratory behaviour can be defined as “activity in an unfamiliar environment” (Sih et al., 2004) Such behaviour occurs either when entering a new environment or being introduced to a novel object. This behaviour stops once the animal becomes familiar with its environment ( Shillito, 1963). Exploratory behaviour has an effect on fitness. Male zebra finches that exhibit more exploratory behaviour, have more breeding attempts and nestlings. (McCowan et al., 2014). Slow exploring individuals are shy whereas fast exploring individuals are
If a horse were to bite another horse and that other horse started to hurt him, he would realize that it is not wise to try and engage like that with him. A Review of Learning Behavior in Horses and its Application in Horse Training, supports training by reinforcement with the replication of herd behavior, “When the trainer applies an aversive stimulus after the horse makes an incorrect response, the trainer is utilizing punishment. Both punishment and negative reinforcement use aversive stimuli… Punishment differs from reinforcement (both positive and negative) in that it works to suppress or eliminate a response, whereas reinforcements increase the probability that the response will occur again with the presentation of a specific stimulus” (McCall, 1990, p.78). These techniques are not abusive because they replicate the methods of establishment of the pecking order and how horses socialize. The punishment a horse may receive is not nearly as painful or aggressive as a herd member’s punishment with teeth or
Humans have been examining and studying non-human primates for ages in an attempt to further understand the reasoning behind human behavior and base instinct. While it would be ideal to study non-human primates in the wild, away from possible interference from human civilization, that is often not the case, especially for students, and in this case the non-human primates have been observed within captivity. Specifically, the species observed were the Tufted Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) at the Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre in Edinburgh Zoo.
Learned behavior, which is common in primates, is a highly important for their survival. “Sometimes, primates are not conscious of their actions, and other times they strategize, learning by observation and imitation” (195). Although instinctual behavior helps primates survive, learned behavior is beneficial because through their social groups and social learning, primates have been able to show each other ways to survive. In addition, primates are known to have substantially larger brains and are typically more intelligent than other mammals, so their extensive learning capabilities enable them to discover survival tactics or food sources. Then the things they have learned are passed on to each other through their social groups
Antagonistic behaviors are those conflict behaviors that include aggressive and submissive behaviors. Antagonistic behaviors tend to occur over territoriality. Every animal is looking for the most advantageous place to live and this results in having conflicts with other animals similar to their species and their needs. Animals fight for territory for many reason including: competition for food, to avoid interruptions while mating, survival and others. Fighting becomes a result from intrusion. Many animals mark their territories in different ways. The final result of the fight tends to favor an individual in a higher social position over the other (Wilson, 1975). Meaning, at the end of the fight, one
Their response to threats is simply a threat. When a pair of red-ruffed lemurs approached Subject 1, the black-and-white ruffed lemur resorted to raising its front hands in an attempt to scare off the enemy. The same was observed in Subject 2 when its kin screeched angrily at the subject for falsely warning them of a predator. The subject then turns to shaking its tail wildly and bears its teeth at the group. This observation confirms how territorial some primates are and that threats are usually met with threats. This standoff strategy reveals how dominance in a group or area is achieved. Furthermore, this also reveals a significant trait shared by most primates, which is the need to exercise some form of power and control over
Tradeoffs are a frequent occurrence in Nature. They describe the compromise between two optimal but frequently incompatible traits for an organism. Andrea Pomeroy and her team applied this concept of tradeoffs to the western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, of British Columbia Canada, with the trade off of their ability to forage for food against the costs of potential predation.
Due to the intellectual level of primates there parenting skills differ from other mammals. Primates birth fewer off spring than other mammals because there births are spaced out over time to account for teaching and nurturing the newborns. Primates tend to take much better care of there infants with mothering qualities due to there intelligence which is far different than other mammals who sometimes give birth and leave there young. Primates care for there offspring much more than other mammals and do things that more closely resemble the care humans have when it comes to parenting as oppose to animals like dolphins and other mammals.
The social behaviors that occurred and the researchers observed and recorded were, group resting, synchronized breathing, group feeding, and a strong preference towards shaded areas.
His findings indicate that children are naturally helpful and cooperative, and as they grow, their outlook and behavior is modeled by their surroundings. Children base their behavior on the social values of their society; for example, neither a child nor an adult is likely to simply walk away from an interaction in the middle with no warning. Apes, on the other hand, demonstrate the ability to share and cooperate, but often choose not to. They do not seem to have the same sense of community or social responsibility that Tomasello believes is innate in humans. That natural sense of community is one reason Tomasello believes that we see pro social behavior so early in human