As there are different translation models, it goes without saying that translated works are based on the theories that such models have been theorized upon so the translated works are reflections of such underlying theories. A modest attempt has been made in this study to analyze translation quality models from the point of view of practicality. First, some general ideas and intentions for making translation evaluation will be discussed. Secondly, some critical, theoretical issues which can give us a better understanding of educational contexts, and which are related to carrying out a translation evaluation, will be argued. Then, a translation of Macbeth by Dariush Ashoori will be analyzed to see how a talented translator can convey meanings in the target language with following similar rhythms and forms of the source language in the target one.
There is two parts in this book, Part One, ‘Theoretical Preliminaries’ gives a general idea of what stylistics involves. It presents a set of techniques applicable to the description of any piece of language, and discusses various theoretical concepts necessary for classifying the varieties of language into types. English is the focus of the discussion, but it is felt that the techniques could be generalized to other languages. In chapter two ‘Linguistic Description’, they explain two models of linguistic description used in this book: models of non-segmental phonology and grammar. They use symbolization of non-segmental features to allow people to deduce the way in which the spoken discourse was spoken.
Semantics, as one subfield of linguistics is pedagogically significant. In terms of meaning making, Spring (2003) posited in his study the importance of semantic competence, for it comprises the skills to identify meaning of words and relationship of syntactic structures. These relationships of structures include entailment, uniformity, and ambiguity. Pyykkönen (2009)
She mainly wrote about the 6 stumbling blocks that explain the issue of other cultures communicating, how can we overcome with this circumstance, and the efficient way to communicate with foreigners. The 6 stumbling blocks include Assumptions of Similarities, Language Difference,
It helped me to determine the start point of my research as I looked at the cultural concepts first then its influence on languages. "The Relationship Between Language & Culture and the Implications for Language Teaching." Teflnet RSS. Aubrey Neil Leveridge. Web.
1. Introduction At times, people would borrow words and ideas from other works to fit specific situations and purposes. Whether conscious or not, they are using intertextuality. Originally coined and developed by the poststructuralist Julia Kristeva (1986) in 1966, the term intertextuality has been widely accepted and used in the field of modern and postmodern literary criticism. In their Introduction to Text Linguistics, De Beaugrande and Dressler (2002) state that intertextuality “concerns the factors which make the utilization of one text dependent upon knowledge of one or more previously encountered texts”.
This is a research about Pragmatic Equivalence in the English Translation. Three theories will be applied in this paper; they are very connected with the title to show some of the steps and ways that must be taken in consideration when a translator begins to translate. Pragmatic equivalence: “Pragmatics refers to the meaning of words in context, to the appropriate use of language according to tongue, culture and situation. It refers to the intended meaning behind the surface, semantic meaning.” (Hale, 2004, P.5). Translators should not only translate the semantic meaning, but they should also interpret the pragmatic meaning of utterances.
It is not a secret that translation bridges inter-linguistic communication between people. It also plays a significant cultural and linguistic role in transferring messages between languages. According to J. Munday, translating "between two different written languages involves the translator changing an original written text (source text) in the original verbal language, source language, into a written text (target text) in a different verbal language, the target language"(2008:5). Friedrich Schleiermacher defines translating in two ways: "Either the translator leaves the author in peace, as much as possible, and moves the reader toward him. Or he leaves the reader in peace, as much as possible, and moves the author toward him” (qt in Venuti
Translational Equivalence When we attempt to analyze the various dimensions of translational studies, we would surely find out that translational equivalence or equivalence in translation is one of the most researched and discussed topics. Translational equivalence is the style of translation where the sense or situation of the original term is replicated through the use of different wording (Vinay and Darbelnet, 1995). This sense of the original and its translated word are equivalent and similar. Precisely, equivalence in translation is represented by the corresponding expression of a word in another language. Theorists, linguists, and experts have tried to categorize the translational equivalence into different parts.
The main aim of their systematic analysis is to enable the translators overcome the difficulties that they may face in the process of translating. For this aim, they developed seven translation procedures, three of them are direct, or literal, and the others are oblique. The direct procedures include borrowing, calque, and literal, while the oblique ones include transposition, modulation, equivalence, and adaptation. The differences between ST and TT are supposed to occur in the oblique procedures (Cyrus, 2009: 92). In the following sections, these seven translation procedures are touched upon in order to see how shifts are used to overcome difficulties translators may face during