This gave rise to belief that there was a “hierarchy” of races and that the Europeans were at the top of the hierarchy. Imperialists used genetics as a justified explanation to why white people were more superior to other races. Darwin believed that animal species was adapting and changing to environments in the process of evolution. Never did Darwin suggest that this was meant to apply to humans and their societies, cultures and races. However although the theory adapted by Herbert Spencer, and originally created by Darwin, contributed towards imperialism and colonisation it was not the sole cause of it.
History is something that suffers from survivorship bias i.e. those who overcame their adversaries get to write their version of the events. Knox theory is based on erroneous empirical evidence whose lack of substance he accepts in his book “The races of man”. Based on detailed autopsy of a single colored person, he casts an entire race as inferior based on the fact that the subject’s mental and physical capacities were of an inferior nature thereby; colored people were subservient to white people. Another theory that is cited by racists in order to strengthen their argument is Darwin’s theory of evolution.
To do so, racialization of the workforce was a necessary step, for in the face of enlightenment thought, where all humans are born equal, what other option was there besides dehumanization? The planters already had social and economic capital. They also shared a Christian European ethnicity. What’s more, they had power. As can be seen when one takes a toy from a child (I wouldn’t recommend this), more pain is inflicted in loss than pleasure is received by
Enlightenment?” Between the 18th and 19th centuries, two considerable revolutions reflected the ideals of the Enlightenment.Though these ideals played a substantial role in both revolutions, they were more significantly shown in the American Revolution. The French Revolution began with intentions following the Enlightenment ideals but ended up with strong feelings of fear driving the people rather than princples. Enlightenment ideals heavily emphasized the importance and rights of each individual, white man; these were called natural rights. These ideals encompassed popular sovereignty where the opinions of the majority were emphasized. The Enlightenment continued the ideas of the Scientific Revolution in which there was a great emphasis on human reasoning and how it could answer questions about nature; in the Enlightenment, people believed that human reasoning could be used to solve any issues in society or politics.
There is a significant debate developing in the field of biology. Biologists, professors, and many others are questioning the origin of the world and how its habitants came to be. The dispute involves the two competing theories of Intelligent Design and Darwinian Evolution. Science may not offer us absolute certainty about the world, however it can give us explanations for what seems more likely than others. Darwinism is a more likely explanation for species change as it is testable and has supporting evidence whereas Intelligent Design does not.
Sosita Thapa History 109 Argument Detection Paper American Anglo - Saxons ideology was used internally to support the power and to protect existing racial mass, and externally to shape the destiny of much of the world. American Anglo- Saxons, as a “superior race”, ought to bring the political as well as economic changes that would make possible stability throughout the world. These arguments were used to justify the takeover of thinly populated areas and the economic penetration of areas that were heavily populated with “inferior” races, incapable of sharing American’s system and doomed to permanent extinction. Before the nineteenth century, there was never a specific term to define “Anglo- Saxons” people. Later it became less precise and was often used to describe the white people of the United States in contrast to Indians, Mexicans, and Blacks.
Braford E. Burns began writing The Poverty of Progress as a historical essay arguing against the “modernization” of nineteenth century Latin America. Burns argues that modernization was preformed against the will of the majority and benefited a small group of Creole Elite, while causing an exponential drop in the quality of life for folk majority. Burns supports his research through a series of dichotomies. Within the first twenty years of the nineteenth century the majority of Latin America gained independence from Spain. Prior to the Latin American countries gaining independence, the Creole elites expressed great displeasure with the crown and readily equated themselves with the American colonists before gaining independence from Britain.
Colonization is an action in which one civilization captures and controls another civilization, preferably one which may be considered to be of lower status. This action is performed with the intent of civilizing and guiding another civilization.. However, this is a misconception; the advancement of a civilization is not synonymous with the physical aspects of the citizens found within that specific society. Colonization, in simple terms, is fueled by racism, an idea which assisted in the construction of the concept of white supremacy. White supremacy, or the delusion that the White race is the most superior race of all, was the powerful drive which allowed for brutal attacks to happen against people of color for thousands of years.
to exchange internal growth and advancement for the development of external possessions which can never be really hers?” The argument largely centered on upholding the quality of life in America. Accordingly, Carnegie wrote, “The luxuries of the masses in other lands are the necessaries of life in ours.” By avoiding the lure of imperialism, “(America is) impregnable against serious attack,” and can focus on its own internal advancement. Twain’s argument against imperialism differs strongly from the ideas of Carnegie. Twain views imperialism as contradictory to America’s core values. The Anti-Imperialist League uses democracy, or the concept of people holding the power, to assert, “that a government derives its just powers from the consent of the governed.” Twain claims, “There must be two Americas: one that sets the captive free, and one that takes a once captive's new freedom away from him.” Like the Anti-Imperialist League, Twain believes imperialism infringes upon the rights America claims to give individuals.
As stated earlier the white monitory felt under threat and fear the extinction of the race as a whole and eugenics was perceive to be their last hope (Reference). Just as Britain had used eugenics in the classification of social status based on race; eugenics enabled the so-called “hereditary defects” to be segregated from society to protect the purity of the white race (Reference). Eugenics lay behind the construction of segregationist ideology in South Africa (Reference) as Professor Susanne Klausen. Each person belonged to the race where the texture of hair and skin color matched (Reference). Furthermore the Hassle on the distinctiveness of different cultures meant the burden of explaining human differences; eugenics was seen as the most efficient way of doing so.