TASK 1 What are the social determinants of health and how these determinants are linked to Inequality in health outcomes between different social groups? The social determinants of health ranges from factors such as the wider socio-economic context as seen in fig 1, inequality; poverty; social exclusion; socio-economic position; income; public policies; health services; employment; education; housing; transport; the built environment; health behaviours or lifestyles; social and community support networks and stress. The social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people live and work and these circumstances are shaped by economics, policies and politics. It is the duty of the government tackle this social determinant of health
7 / D.P7: Explain how different procedures maintain health and safety in a selected health or social care setting Maintaining health and safety in health and social care is extremely important to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of all their service users as well as other individuals service providers may come in contact with in the setting. There are several procedures that help to maintain this health and safety however they can all vary between settings for example, health and safety procedures will be slightly different and more focused on certain areas in hospitals and especially in paediatric ward compared to in drop-in centres where the needs and risk to service users are slightly different. Some of the procedures used in health and social care to maintain health and safety include; infection control and prevention, safe moving and handling of equipment and individuals, food preparation and storage, storage and administration of medication and storage and disposal of hazardous substances. In the paediatric ward in hospitals infection control and prevention is very important. Service users in hospital are much more prone to infections and diseases as they are already unwell therefore extra precautions are always taken.
Social determinants of health depend on social, environmental and economic conditions in societies (EuroHealthNet, n.d.). These factors and conditions, together with the age, sex and hereditary factors of a person, are interlinked and influence the health status of the individual, because a person is born, grows, lives, works and ages in these conditions (Equity Action, 2010). The living and working conditions include agriculture and food production, education, work and environment, unemployment, water and sanitation, health care services and housing (Marmot, Health inequalities in the EU, 2013, p. 40). In addition, it is clear that equal access to good health is hard to achieve, and it can be done so, if disadvantages are assessed, and that necessary measures should be taken (Stegeman, Costongs, & Needle,
Introduction Health is an important element throughout our life. A person’s health can be affected by many social factors such as gender roles and economic positions. As there are differences in health status between different populations groups, health inequality is then formed, for example, differences in morbidity and mortality rates between people from different social classes. In my essay, I will first define the meaning of ‘health’ from different perspectives. Then, I will talk about how social factors such as gender roles and economic positions determine a person’s health.
“Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.” (Healthy People, 2010) It includes knowing how to control with your own health and to benefit your own health through making informed health decisions, seeking appropriate treatments. Anyone can be health literate. Anyone at home, at school, work, or even the society as a whole. Health literacy can impact our health overall and all aspects of life. Even if you’re intelligent and educated people in the stress of medical situation when you’re ill, you can be health literate too.
The concept of health care needs includes physical, psychospiritual, social, and environmental needs that arise for patients in stressful health care situations. The concept of nursing interventions outlines nursing actions that promote comfort care. The concept of the intervening variables described as factors that influence recipient’s perception of comfort and affect outcomes. The concept of comfort defined as the immediate result of nursing interventions. Health seeking behaviors concept defined as “patient actions, which serve as predictors or indicators of improved health, categorized as internal (e.g., healing, immune function), external (e.g., functional status, a perception of health), or as a peaceful death” (Kolcaba, 2001, p.91).
Planning and Organization of Health Programs for the Community • Health programs are a set of planned and organized activities carried out over time to accomplish specific health-related goals and objectives. • Health Program planning is a process in which an intervention is planned to help meet the needs of a specific group of people. • Example: Community Nutrition Program for Adolescent Anemia, School Health Program for Improving the health of the school children, Immunization program for Under five children etc., • The Process of planning and organization of health programs for the community involves a series of activities. • Public Health Nurse and many health planners use various models which guide the process of planning and organization
Health promotion in the health care services is therefore one of the key methods through which individuals can employ persuasive methodologies alongside personal one-to-one counselling from individuals which health to alter the behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of individuals towards the health choices they make. 1.1
The Health Field Model The Health Field Model (HFM) is the conceptual framework that is used by different health care organizations or in individual research projects to evaluate the prevalence, awareness and management of diseases in the community (Pittman, 2010). The HFM, a determinant health model is developed by Bob Evans and Greg Stoddart in 1990. The HFM provides a broad spectrum for understanding health, and the factors that interfere with, and influence the health of individuals in the community. There are features to put into consideration for, in determining the factors that affect many diseases; hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease, or influence of health on a community (Kindig & McGinnis, 2007). According to Evans and Stoddart (1990), grouped
Before we look at the different Social/Psychological Determinants of Health it is important firstly to define what a social determinant of health is. According to the World Health Organization (2017) “The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age.” These conditions are as a result of a wide range of factors that are ultimately governed by the way in which money, power and specific resources are shared at different levels including those at global, national and local levels. We have all been a part of and will experience different social determinants of health throughout our lives but it is the standard at which we experience these determinants that will ultimately lead onto them affecting our health or ultimately leaving us unaffected. The Social Determinants of Health which I am going to examine include • Education • Unemployment • Stress • Living Conditions • Cultural Norms. These Social Determinants of Health may all relate to each other in some ways but may also have no relation to each other at all.