2012). The definition of public health has stood the test of time as cited by (Winslow 1920) as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society, organisations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Policy-makers can cooperate with a range of organizations, health practitioners, and government departments at all levels in order to develop health policy that seeks to reduce health inequalities effectively before they can manifest themselves in poor health outcomes. The medical model – while it will always be around, and while it arguably should always be around – is somewhat of a quick-fix, short-term approach to a very serious and pervasive public health issue. The social-ecological model, though, is a much more forward thinking, long-term, and sustainable approach to dealing with this public health issue. It looks to the root causes of the issue – all of the social and economic determinants of health discussed in part 1 – and attempts to solve the problem at that level. This approach is far more useful for reducing health inequalities.
The ecological model of heath analyses the interaction between people and the environment focusing on the ideology that the physical geography affects our health. If viewed from another perspective, the film can also be studied by looking at the social model of health highlighting key issues in the Norco community concerning socioeconomic status, injustice, economics, and racism. The film, Fenceline: A Company Town Divided, illustrations the importance of communication in a society in order for individuals to expression their concerns regarding political issues to benefit one’s self as well as the rest of mankind. In the end, we all breathe the same air. List of References: American Documentary, Inc. (2002, January 15).
When discussing health promotions many strategies are used. To first understand the strategies used in health promotion you must understanding the meaning of health promotions itself. Let’s break down the term health promotion, health means the state of being free from illness or injury or a person 's mental or physical condition. While promotions can be defined as a communication strategies that inform, persuade, and influences beliefs and behaviors relevant to the product. Combined you get a is a process of enabling people to increase control over, and improve, their health and the conditions that affect their health () Within health promotion there are strategies in which are utilized to achieve ideal goal.
This has been expressed based on two platforms: “biomedical” which focus on the impact on the health of the population, and “economic” which focus on the financial impact of the disease on the population. The burden of disease is usually measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity and other indicators hence, measurement as disability – adjusted life years (DALY) or quality-adjusted life years (QALY)12. The DALY and QALY quantify the year lost due to diseases. In public health the measurement of the burden of disease is critical as it helps to measure the impact of diseases and aid decision making in knowing the priorities to attend to. This is owing to the fact that there are limited resources available to address all challenges hence, prioritization based on the relative importance of disease and disability to the entire population - the burden of the disease.
ENSURING EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CONCEPT Evidence base practice can be defined as the integration of clinical experience and skills, patient values and best research evidence into decision making process for patients’ care (Saclett D, 2002) The integration of the three elements into decision making process enables the practitioner a better opportunity for enhanced clinical outcome and improved quality of life. Evidence alone is not enough in decision making hence the integration of the three elements. In order to ensure effective public health programme the practitioner must ensure that every decision made is evidence based. Public health programmes and initiatives should be supported by scientific proves and evidences. Research based on scientific proves are used to form health care policy which can be implemented to improve the health of the community.
Discuss the pros and cons of the WHO infectious disease surveillance efforts currently in effect. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the main purpose of public health surveillance, is composed of three components: 1) Serve as an early warning system for impending public health emergencies; 2) Document the impact of an intervention, or track progress towards specified goals; and 3) Monitor and clarify the epidemiology of health problems, to allow priorities to be set and to inform public health policy and strategies (http://www.who.int/). Based on the above information, the outlined pros would be 1) It provides a structured way of ensuring that health issues are taken care of; 2) Keep a good record of previous history regarding
Even more important is the fact that the reports of the Institute of Medicine have a huge impact on how to evaluate the outcomes of health care the workers themselves. In 1999, the Institute of Medicine published a landmark report, " To Err is Human : creating a safe health care system." The outcome of the report is the statement about the necessity of measures to create safer health system. Since that time, the safety of patients - a problem that primarily was not clearly understood and rarely been the subject of discussion – began to strongly attract the attention of the government. Moreover, thanks to the publications of IOM the attention to patient safety has been drawn to the general public.
This approach is the attempt to understand health in the fullest context (The Biopsychosocial Approach). The biopsychosocial approach takes into account biological, psychological, social factors, and the complex influences they have on each other which results in a more complete understanding of peoples health (The Biopsychosocial Approach). When looking at biology’s role in health we are frequently looking at things such as genetics, physiology, neurology and disability. When looking at the social context we are normally looking at social systems, cultures, economic status, religion, education. When looking at psychology’s role in health we look at beliefs, neurosis, skills, personality, behaviors, past trauma, coping skills, and learning/memory.
It focuses on the number of people exposed, and the potential for spread within the community to enable implementation of appropriate actions to prevent additional cases or recurrences of the disease. (Brownson, 2011) Application - Epidemiology provides useful scientific basis for prevention of diseases and injury and the promotion of health. (Soph.uab.edu, 2016) Roles of epidemiology Epidemiology is considered a tool for collecting data that enable public health surveillance, disease investigation, analytic studies and program evaluation. Public Health Surveillance Public health surveillance is essential for rapid detection investigation and identification of disease outbreaks. The common source of surveillance data is reports of disease cases received from health-care providers and from communities.
This has been reflected in the new Public Health Act in BC, which allows authorities the power to establish directives and regulations for individuals when delivering a public health function (under Section 63). The act attempts to balance the autonomy of individuals and the right action for the public good.  In this case, the fine line between the workers’ individual right and freedom and protection of public health has yet to be explored and defined. It appears that the policy was on the reasonable ground that flu shot mandatory protect HCW and patients’ safety from getting flu. I believe that the key issue is to attain evidence-based study to ensure the vaccine safety and effectiveness for both HCW and patients.