Kohlberg proposed that moral reasoning advanced through six stages of moral development, stages 1 to 4 occurred through a “natural evolution of cognitive skills,” while stages 5 and 6 require a teacher (Williams & Arrigo, , p. 123). Moreover, Kohlberg proposed that there were three levels of moral development, each categorized by two stages. Preconventional Morality (Lv. I) is categorized by self-interest, first existent ages 1 through 10. Kohlberg’s stage 1: punishment obedience orientation, is categorized by a perception influenced by punishment and reward.
F. Skinner (1938), negative reinforcement is a response or behavior strengthened by stopping, removing or avoiding a negative event or outcome. One misconception that people and parents often make are the resemblance of negative reinforcement towards punishment. Punishment is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior displayed or exhibited.Reinforcement deals with feedback, whether positive or negative, and also discusses the behavior modification that may happen when put into certain situations. When concerning negative reinforcement, we are referring towards the strengthening of a behavior by reducing a negative outcome or an event. Yet, not all forms of negative reinforcement is a double-edged sword, some may even be fruitful, as some studies realize that negative reinforcement and punishment plays a big role in developing the healthy brain and its growth.
Kohlberg Theory of Moral Development Kohlberg 's Theory of Moral Development was based on how people will reason out about moral issues. It 's not important what will be the answer to the dilemma, what important is the reasoning behind that answer. After the study, Kohlberg identified three level, each level with two sub stages. In Level 1, the pre-conventional level, an individual do not speak yet as a member of society. Moral reasoning was based on the consequences of action.
The social cognition theory is a psychological model of behavior that was emerged from the work of Albert Bandura. This theory mainly focuses on individual environment and how the environment influences an individual behavior (Denler, Wolters, & Benzon, 2014). Mr. Bandura is very famous for the Bobo Doll experiment. This experiment shows how strong environmental influences are on individual behavior. He demonstrated this by showing how easy it is for children to learn aggression.
Theoretical Background This study is anchored on Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory. This theory proposed that moral reasoning of human beings is associated with the stages of development in solving moral issues that an individual encounters (Bjorklund & Blasi, 2010). Kohlberg’s moral development sees moral reasoning as progressing through three levels to support his claims. First, pre-conventional moral reasoning, it is characterized by apparent and physical events. The presentation of moral issues at this stage is concentrated with the rewards and punishments after the occurrence of their action.
Kohlberg’s Postconventional Morality Theory This theory reference to being able to develop moral principles that transcend one’s own society, such as, individual ethics, societal rights, and universal principles of right and wrong (Hutchison, 2015, pg.235). Carmen life portrayed this theory when she starting looking for options for her baby. She knew she didn’t want to abort, so she went looking for all the options she had before making a decision that was going to impact her life and especially the child’s life when they grow up. Person and The Environment Biopsychological
(internet) In the early stages of learning it is desirable that reinforcement is continuous and immediate. However, on a later stage of learning, reinforcement process needs to be more intermittent to be more effective. Positive reinforcement can take many forms. Some of these are verbal compliments, smiles, pat on the back or other nonverbal behavior that shows or implies approval. Smith & Smoll (1997), demonstrates that athletes who play for positively oriented coaches enjoys their athletic experience more, likes their trainers
In this essay I will explore two articles that explain the moral theory. The first article is called “ Selections from Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals” by Immanuel Kant. The second article that I will be comparing to Immanuel Kant’s is called “A Simplified Account of Kant’s Ethics” by Onora O’Niell. I will also be giving a brief summary and comparing each article. By the end of this essay I would like to prove that O’Neill’s account of Kant’s moral theory is a much easier and appropriate way of looking at things.
So at that point, I am considering the society as well when I’m making my moral judgement. Level 3: Post-Conventional