To Parrillo, a person is not only influenced to have a discriminatory mentality psychologically wise but also socially wise. He presents us with two forms (Socialization and Social Norms) of how an individual is persuaded to incline towards having discriminatory thoughts due to his surroundings. According to Parrillo in “Causes of Prejudice”, socialization is where a person adopts the perspectives and moralities from those who surround her. These perspectives and moralities implement the thought of race as an opportunity to outcast those who do not possess the same benefits as the “inferior” individuals. The term social norms is in a way similar to the term socialization, it just refers to a more personal level of influence.
2. How is institutional racism different from prejudice? Racism is the belief that one race is superior to another. That has to be taught, or developed as a cultural ideology (for example, the Spanish Reconquista) Prejudice is different. Prejudice is the pre-judging of a situation or person based upon less than all the facts.
People differentiate male from female in such categories as traits, behaviors, physical characteristics, and occupations. Stereotyping becomes a negative component when it is used to develop prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice is defined by Merriam-Webster as ‘an irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual, a group, a race, or their supposed characteristics; an adverse judgment, opinion, or leaning formed without just grounds or before sufficient knowledge’. These are preconceived
Anti-oppressive practice focuses on the structural inequalities and places the blame that service users internalize on the structures and systems themselves (Ajandi, 2018). Humanistic and social justice values and ideas shape anti-oppressive practice (Healy, 2015). They address inequalities that affect opportunities of service users, due to the interlocking of social relations and oppression (Burke & Harrison, 2002). AOP aims to identify oppressions and define ways in which social workers can attempt to become anti-oppressive, avoid discomfort, and end oppression to service users (Strega, 2007). It highlights mutual involvement between the social worker and the service user, challenging forms of oppression and inequalities (Burke & Harrison, 2002), and presents the idea that service users do not occupy a “single identity”, but instead have interlocking oppressions that work together to put clients at a social disadvantage (Strega, 2007).
There are many concepts that underpin discrimination and many theories to draw from this paper will detail and explore the definitions, concepts, and theories such as Stereotyping, Social Identity Theory, and Conflict Theory which are all to the fore in prejudice and discrimination. It will seek to examine current research and suggest strategies based on best practice and evidence to combat discrimination and prejudice within organisations to allow for a healthy productive workforce. Prejudice is an unjustified or incorrect negative attitude in the direction of an individual based exclusively on the individual’s affiliation with a social group, a prejudiced person might not act on their attitude. Therefore, someone can be biased to a definite
Audience’s feeling and attitude is so fundamental in bolstering one organization. Hopes of an organization in reducing the offensiveness increased whenever it tries to bolster up by the audience’s positive perception. A second possibility is to try to minimize the negative feelings associated with the wrongful act (Benoit, 1997). The organization is able to reduce the offensiveness to the lowest possible level or prevent it from increasing beyond the level if it can minimize the risk of an unpleasant situation and make it seems less significant than it really is. Third, a firm can employ differentiation, in which the act is distinguished from other similar but more offensive actions (Benoit, 1997).
The term ‘Prejudice’ is predominantly a negative attitude directly referring to the prejudgement of another, usually based solely on group membership (Hogg & Vaughan, 2011). It is important to highlight that there is a difference between prejudice and discrimination, one may hold prejudiced views, but not act upon them (Aronson, Wilson & Akert, 2013). Therefore it is possible that someone can be prejudiced towards a particular group but not discriminate against them (Brehm & Kassin, 1995). Discrimination on the other hand, is defined as an unjust negative action towards an individual solely based on their membership to a group (Baron & Branscombe, 2014). This brings the discussion onto the cause of prejudice and the approaches which attempt to offer an explanation for
2. Paragraph 1: Emotional prejudice in Parrillo A) Topic: Psychogical prejudice can be driven by emotion. B) Support: Parrillo explains that emotional level of prejudice can be the feeling a group of people causes individuals to feel bases on stereotypes. Parrillo definds emotional prejudice as “feelings that a minority group arouses in an individual. Although these feelings may be based on stereotypes” (214).
Prejudice and the Scapegoat Theory Prejudice is preconceived opinion to an individual or a certain group which is can be both negative and positive, but mostly negative, that is not based on relevant facts. For example, when some group of people view negatively towards homosexuality and believe it’s a sin. This negative ‘belief’ that is called prejudice is not limited to a certain race or a country but everyone can have a prejudice on something or someone. Psychologists came out with several theories to explain the cause of prejudice but this paper will focus on the scapegoat theory that is commonly discussed as one of the causes of prejudice because scapegoating is a common practice that we are often unaware of but happens frequently in our society. It will talk about the development of the theory, definition and examples of the scapegoat theory.
Using this, examples of social identify could be ‘female’, ‘white’ or ‘Christian’. Intersectionality thus highlights the ways in which one’s social context is affected by one’s social identity- which this, your social identity has the ability to either privilege or oppress. For example, an English-speaking individual will experience privilege in an English dominated society, and a homosexual individual will most-likely experience oppression in a heteronormative society. Intersectionality is thus a concept which can be used to expose the ways in which privilege functions in a
The attitude of the dominant group towards other racial groups are positional: a term that defines the shape of the sense of the supremacy of the groups over other minority groups. On the other hand, the subordinate group is usually motivated by unfair treatment by the dominant group. The idea is to secure a great share of the benefits they will accrue. The attitudes that define racial differences does not only reflect on the prejudice to the level of an individual but also to a larger extent where the fear of the dominant in losing resources or privilege to the other racial groups. Sometimes, the fear could be on the beliefs of the minority members that the interest of the groups might be challenged by the existing race (Weitzer and Tuch
When analyzing a concept like racial profiling, it is essential to attempt to determine why the practice exists in the first place, what the structures are that enable the practice to continue to exist, and what sort of effect these factors have on society. Racial profiling is a self-perpetuating cycle that is deeply embedded in our cultures old and traditional ways of thinking. This ingrained racism enables racial profiling, which enables racism and so forth. As the US Department of Justice explains, it “perpetuates[s] negative racial stereotypes that are harmful to our rich and diverse democracy, and materially impair[s] our efforts to maintain a fair and just society (US Department of Justice, 2003). Jones comments on this saying that racial