The next few chapters will dive into causes of corruption, through a disabling viewpoint, and focus on theories that are comparative to police corruption. The theory of police corruption is a well research area in which police stress attributes to many issues. The physical and psychological demands of police stress have been explored throughout this text. The review of this book was to determine the likelihood of a coincidence of police corruption and PTSD (including depression, alcoholism, etc.) created a need for further examination of this subject matter.
But as discussed above, both functions have some flaws in them that have to be corrected and rectified without any delay. We have to understand that it is misleading to make artificial distinctions between sociological and deterrent models of crime. We have to address and evaluate it collectively. Both types of controls are equally significant and important in the society. The fact is just that the degrees of these two functionaries occasionally fluctuate according to social dynamics, but then mainly do so for the betterment and progress of the society on a collective and total perspective.
The professional or reform era ascended due to the impact of the steps taken to separate police works from the influence of local politicians (Kelling & Moore, 1989). Even though time has carried us to the community era of policing, still corruption is a serious challenge for effective policing. Some police officers do not even understand what an act of corruption is, while others rationalize their act of corruption. In this article police corruption and ways to reduce corruption is critically examined. Furthermore, some common and serious forms of corruption are discussed in this article.
THEORETICAL EXPLANATIONS FOR GANG FORMATION Merton, as cited in (Schneider & Tilly, 2004) suggests structural theories significantly emphasize the role of social and economic structures as the causes of delinquent behavior and tend to treat criminal behavior as the result of the undesirable and dysfunctional structures (P. 3) However, to some it is rather unbelievable people who join gangs belong to similar neighborhoods and socioeconomic backgrounds. This paper draws on existing sociological research in identifying a number of theories; this paper will discuss both social structure and social process theories used in explaining how gangs form. According to Hagan, (2008.) Merton’s revision of Durkheim’s concept of the anomie theory speaks about the conditions that occur when differences exist between the things you want to acquire and the available means to get it, Strain being the discrepancy between goals and means (p. 148-149.)
Retribution is punishment inflicted as a form of vengeance. Deterrence is the instillation of fear of punishment in a potential offender. Incapacitation in the context of corrections is setting punishments that prevent crime but not necessarily deterring it. Lastly, rehabilitation in corrections refers to the restoration of someone who is convicted back into society. Currently, the main focus of our corrections system is a crime-control model.
This theory argued that a persons physical and social environment are responsible for the behavioral choice he or she makes. Social Disorganization Theory correlated that criminal behavior is depending on the neighborhood structure and culture states. For example smaller neighborhoods living in poverty, disadvantage with little to no resources tend to have increased youth violence, and crime. This theory is not intending for all types of crime, but more so community and street crimes. The relationship between the neighborhood and crime correlates because the theory is to prove that these lower class and poverty enriched neighborhoods predict these youths future.
The focus can be on early intervention programs that seek to educate people in connection with ethics and honesty, or in high-risk environments in which crimes are most likely to occur, such as in IT or accounts departments within corporations. c. Tertiary crime prevention Tertiary crime prevention focuses on the operation of the criminal justice system and deals with offending after it has happened. The primary focus is on intervening in the lives of known offenders in an attempt to prevent them from re -offending either through periods of incarceration, community-based sanctions, or monitoring during periods of probation. Criminal justice system responses also seek to deter other potential offenders in the community by making an example of the convicted offender and educating the community concerning the penalties associated with crime. II.
The references used in this study will be used to build knowledge on the subject, and to identify additional variables that come into play that can lead to communities to having a negative perception, or negative attitude towards law enforcement and community policing initiatives. Annotated Bibliography Gill, C., Weisburd, D., Telep, C., Vitter, Z., & Bennett, T. (2014). Community-oriented policing to reduce crime, disorder and fear and increase satisfaction and legitimacy among citizens: a systematic review. Journal Of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), 399-428. doi:10.1007/s11292-014-9210-y This journal article examines the implementation of Community- Oriented Policing (COP) programs, in order to identify their “effects on crime, disorder, fear, citizen satisfaction, and police legitimacy” (Gill et al., 2017, p.399) in all
When someone discusses the social disorganization theory it is currently focus on the relationship between people crimes social control and deviant’s behaviors caused by the environment for example if u live in an area where most crimes were to happen like domestic abuse drug trafficking or gang violence then the people around or more likely to commit crimes than ones who live in good neighborhoods. Today in our community crime effects schools work even our own homes. According to Na’im H. Madyun the author of Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes article stated that “due to high poverty single parent households it is very difficult to create social ties to the community because they believe that society does not want to help the neighborhood who have very high crime rates”(Madyum) What he means by this statement is that when someone in a neighborhood even the school is effected by crime then most kids will end up being a delinquent at an early age for example they’ll start joining gangs by recruiting them through media or on the street and getting involve in crimes while they are in middle school or high school due to parents who go to work to work every day or might be addicted to drugs and abuse their kids in their own houses. What I remembered
Fixing Broken Windows is the analysis and elaboration on methods of crime prevention offered originally in an article by crime consultant George L. Kelling and James Q. Wilson in the 1982 article, “The Police and Neighborhood Safety” published in The Atlantic. In this article, the analogy of the “broken window” was used, where a broken window is really mearly a symbol of disorder in a community that fosters an environment that leads to more criminal behavior. The book itself elaborates on the “broken window” theory, not only leading into an explanation on the progression of the disorder in a “rundown” society but also explaining how the very disorder itself is often underestimates as a source of problems for a society. Misdamernors such as aggressive begging might not appear on the surface to be serious crimes but can lead to the lowering of quality of life of the residents, as well as lead to larger crimes. Kelling and Wilson argue for a more direct involvement in the crimes enacted in a small community, less so than a reaction to the crimes once they have already been committed.