Chapter 4 The most commonly accepted contemporary framework for viewing parental involvement was inspired by the ecological model of Bronfenbrenner (1979, 1986) and designed from a social and organisational perspective (Epstein, 1992). It identifies three major contexts within which children develop and learn: the family, the school, and the community (see Figure). The Overlapping Spheres of Influence model recognises that there are some practices that family, school and community conduct separately and that there are others that they conduct jointly in order to influence the growth and learning of the child. According to Epstein, successful partnerships must be forged between these three spheres in order best to meet the needs of the child. This model is thus philosophically aligned
As early as 1962, Maslow posited a psychological hierarchy in which the need for belonging took precedence over needs for knowledge and understanding. According to Slavin (1981), students who worked together liked school more than students who were not allowed to do so. They were more likely to say that they wanted their classmates to do well in school and that they felt their classmates also wanted them to do well. By participating in social-climate setting activities, both students and teachers came to better understand each other’s value systems and began to create a cohesive environment. This enabled them to work together toward the common goal of social and academic achievement (Moos & Moos, 1973).
Nurses utilize various theories such as Self care deficit theory, Newman’s systems theory and Pender’s health promotion model based on the study variables. Child health assessment interaction model is used to assess the primary relationship between the mother and child, specifically designed for children below three years of age. Children learn through daily experiences based on the support they received at the time of distress. A child’s experience is characterized by getting the help needed when distressed; develop trust needed to move on to further developmental challenges. If the child experiences any negative emotions it may result in behavior problems.
The influence of a role model can affect individuals’ personality, ambitions or interest. Self-worth is based on children 's self-assessment of their capabilities in comparison to others. Positive assessment suggests that it is worth to do because the individual is better in that activity than others. Negative assessment signs if there is a skill needed to develop. Becoming too many negative assessments leads the individual to a negative self-assessment and may result in an overall feeling of inadequacy (Cole and Cole, 2006).
(1999) described parent involvement as the social relations that are encompass norms of trust, obligation, or reciprocity, if described in this manner, parent involvement is conceived of as a form of social capital. Parents invest their time, attention, and resources in their children with the expectation of a return namely that their children will perform better in school. Using this framework McNeal asserts that parent involvement consists of three broad domains, parent-child relations, parent-school relations, and parent-parent relations. In all three cases, it is generally assumed that parents invest time with their children, school personnel, or other parents with the expectation that their involvement will yield a tangible return. Parent interaction is described as the relationship between teacher and parent that will increase or decrease parent involvement.
Abrams and Hogg (1988) had exerted to spotlight the minimum conditions that make individuals discriminate in the favour of the in-group they belong to and against an out-group aiming to achieve self-esteem and self-confidence (ibid). In social identity theory and identity theory, the self is reflexive in that it can take itself as an object and can categorize, classify or name itself in particular ways in relation to other social categories or classifications. This process is called self-categorization in social identity theory (Stets & Burke, 2000: 224). Tjfel and Turner claim that social identity theory confirms that the in-group or (self-categorization) is built by the group membership in ways that the in-group is preferred at the expense of the out-group. They proposed the example of (minimal group paradigm) by which they argue that the mere individuals’ categorization is sufficient to lead them to the in-group favouritism.
Bandura (1977), Found that the most influential ways of learning comes from observation. Most individuals are influence by their environment. From their environment around them. The social learning theory is where a person will learn by observing and Children are encouraged to do the appropriate sex-typed activities of the following Parents traditional roles feed two children in traditional families, Media portrays traditional roles for females and males. Therefore, there are many women who are placed in the traditional domestic role, Schools transmit the information of gender role stereotypes to children.
They observe parent teachers and peers in course of daily life. Social learning theory implies that the models that children are most likely to imitate are those who are warm, rewarding and affectionate. Attachment is also a part of process. The most significant models are people to whom the child is emotionally
Learning Engagement Engagement defined as the simultaneous employment and expression of a person’s preferred self in task behaviors that promote connections to work and to others, personal presence (physical, cognitive, and emotional) and active full performance (Truss et al, 2013). Student engagement, described as the tendency to be behaviorally, emotionally, and cognitively involved in academic activities, is a key construct in motivation research (Thijs & Verkuyten, 2009). The student’s psychological investment in and effort directed toward learning, understanding, or mastering the knowledge, skills or crafts that academic work is intended to promote is called student’s engagement. Although student’s engagement as academic participation
I believe children grow and learn through their personal experiences and through environmental interactions, their personality is shaped. My personal goal is to challenge students and watch them grow and achieve the most with their capabilities. I believe every child is unique and develop differently, they have varying personalities, they possess different strengths, therefore, require different types of support to meet their individual needs. As the work of Maria Montessori demonstrates the importance of individuality and independence in learning, “Only through freedom and environmental experience is it practically possible for human development to occur" (Montessori, 1949). I want to take students at diverse levels and see them develop together