Social entrepreneurship is the attraction of growing attention, money, and talents by entrepreneurs and companies. As the major focus, it aims at developing, funding, and implementing solutions for environmental, cultural, and social issues (Chell, Spence, Perrini, & Harris, 2016). Entrepreneurs engaging in social entrepreneurship have their basic levels of operating as a social cause. The success of social ventures is measured based on the improvements realized in the world rather than profits accumulated. Such organizations attain a successful change in underlying issues in the community through feedback and innovations towards solving the social problem.
The three major dimensions of Horizontal Inequality are, as discussed before, Economic, Social, Political. Economic HI would include inequalities regarding distribution of economic resources and inequalities in terms of income. Another aspect of Economic HI is imbalance of employment opportunities. The social dimension of HI would include various social outcomes such as life expectancy, infant and child mortality, educational attainment and access to various services such as Health services, formal education, water supply, sanitation, housing etc. Political HI can be defined in terms of the group members’ political participation in electoral as well as non-electoral politics.
John Muir, a pioneer in naturalist, once quoted that “when you tug at a single thing in nature, you find it attached to the rest of the world.” This meaningful quote can be applied to business management, which is a subject that has interconnected relationships with different stakeholders. While people generally perceive the purpose of doing business is to maximize the return on investment for their shareholders, Professor R.E. Freeman believes on conscious business, which is also known as conscious capitalism. Conscious business emphasises on its ecosystem. It aims to create and optimise value for all stakeholders of the business, where this act is suggested to be able to lead a healthy, sustainable and resilient business, thereby to maximise the shareholders’ wealth.
This paper attempts to examine the economic determinants of life expectancy and explain the economic basis for the disparity of life expectancy between the regions of the world. This was done by using a series of models that accounted for some basic economic and socio-economic factors unique to each country while accounting for pooled interaction and country classification. Most variables turned out to be significant where income, income inequality, urbanization and public health care expenditure all help to estimate life expectancy. By creating dummy variables for regional analysis, we can see where a person is born ultimately determines a lot about how long they are expected to live, for instances someone born in America is expected to live about 18 years longer than someone born in Africa. 1.0 Introduction Life expectancy, as indicator of development, varies widely throughout the many regions of the world.
Social inequalities can be described as the differences in “income, resources, power and status” (Naidoo and Wills 2008, in Warwick-Booth 2013, 2) that advantage a social class, a group or an individual over another, and thereby establish social hierarchies. It also affects inequalities in regards to gender, race, access to health and education, and general living conditions. In sociology, the dichotomy between the conflict theory approach and the functionalist approach has led to a discordant opinion in regards to social inequalities. The conflict theory seems to admit that social inequalities needs to disappear in order to install a common and equal base for all individuals, whereas the functionalist approach believes that social inequalities
Introduction From time immemorial, scholars have reviewed and criticized theories from various quarters. This study compares and contrasts the perspectives of different scholars on the Max Weber’s theory of stratification. In his theory, Weber postulated a three-component theory determined by class, power, and status, which is widely known as the three-class system or the Weberian stratification. The theory is based on four important principles where social stratification is delineated as universal, is regarded as a societal trait, a universal principle, and it involves inequality as well as beliefs (Pyakuryal 1968). Main body Gane’s (2005) perspective on the Weber theory of social stratification is that it develops the theory of social stratification by classifying the social into economy and society.
Similarly to Max Weber, Bourdieu explained class in its broader sense. As he understood that class cannot be explained from economical point of view alone, Bourdieu presented three forms of capitals, based on which social class stratification is elaborated: economic, cultural and social capital. Economic capital is described in a typical way in connection with financies and the ownership of the means of the production. Due to the fact that cultural capital includes various aspects of life such as taste of food, film preferences, use of spare time, usage of language, way of wearing clothes, etc., it can be, according to Bourdieu, further subdivided into three subtypes: embodied, objectified and institutionalized cultural capital (The Forms of Capital, 1986). Andy Blunden, in his article Bourdieu on Status, Class and Culture, explains what cultural capital means in connection with one's social class: the bourgeois child knows the price of an Impressionist painting at auction and where it should hang in the drawing room, like the working class boy knows who won the World Cup and how to eat a pie.
1A. Sociology is the study of the society and human social relationships. It examines how social changes influence people at every stage of their social life. According to Marx, he believes that the social life is essentially about dispute over resources such as food, healthcare, money and land (Marx & Engels, 1970). His stance leads us to one of the key concerns in sociology known as social stratification.
Social capital has many definitions and interpretations and uses. Social capital is the collective value of all social networks and inclinations that arise from these networks. According to Robert Putnam, Social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness arise from connections between individuals. Robert Putnam and his work has contributed to shape the importance of social capital in our society. Society works most efficiently when there’s plenty of social capital.
Business world on the other hand, should do their job by complying with the regulations and operating profitably at the same time. However in my opinion, I do think that companies have a responsibility to pursue social good. Business corporations are the one and only biggest organization and also the most powerful entity to be able to influence and offer social good towards the society. Paul Hawken in the article “The Ecology of Commerce” stated that “Business is to increase the well-being of humankind through service, creative invention, and ethical action.” Since business is created to satisfy the needs that the society requires, it is understandable for business to satisfy the sustainable wants by the people. This is also supported by John Mackey, founder and CEO of Whole Foods, stating that “In the customer-centered business, customer happiness is an end in itself, and will be pursued with greater interest, passion, and empathy than the profit-centered business is capable of (2005).” Businesses perspectives are also changing greatly, where Aneel Karnani describes “Large companies now routinely claim that they aren't in business just for the profits, that they're also intent on serving some larger social purpose