All of us can draw up separating lines within any cultures to isolate co-cultures using parameters such as age group, gender, politico-social affiliation, lifestyle choice, socioeconomic level, racial, education, region, language, and religion. We may all are part of the human kinds, and we may all be unique. Characteristics of Co-culture: A co culture is a group of people whose beliefs and behavior are different from the dominate culture. Co-culture is broken down into small groups which share similarities. Co-culture has some characteristics of co - culture group experience helps to response in communication because it gives a broader aspect about something Below are the characteristics of CO CULTURE: 1.
Hofstede views culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another” (1994, p. 5). It is apparent from this definition that Hofstede is stressing the power of culture in assorting people into distinct categories or strata based on different qualities and characteristics that they embody. Matsumoto contends that culture is “the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people, but different for each individual, communicated from one generation to the next” (1996, p. 16). Hence, Matsumoto believes that culture is the possession of one group of people which is passed from one generation to another. Samovar and Porter provide a more detailed
Tajfel defined social identity as "that part of an individual 's self-concept which derives from his membership of a social group (or groups), together with the value and emotional significance attached to this" (p. 63) SIT leans towards a cognitive approach of in-group bias. In group members believing that they are in a group with
This technique was created to measure or control how group members feel when it comes to inclusion, control, and affection/openness or to be able to get feedback from people in a group. Unlike many instruments used to examine human interaction behaviours, and needs, the FIRO-B is and was extremely valid internally and externally using inferential statistics. The scale assesses how group members feel when it comes to: Inclusion
In this sense, ethnic identity is “situational” that “is premised on the observation that particular contexts may determine which of a person’s identities or loyalties are appropriate at a point in time.” (Paden 1967, 268) Thus, a question arises about which ethnic group an individual identifies with and then how strongly he/she identifies with that group in different contexts. For those who treat ethnic identity as
Symbolic Interactionism Name Institution Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism is a social paradigm which explains the way in which people live. It tries to explain the behavior of people in relation to that of others and still asserts that people’s behaviors can only be understood through the way they communicate verbally as well as through the use of symbols. Under this theory, people are the doers of an action as opposed to whom action befalls. Through it, reality is formed from people’s communications and associations. It asserts the ideas formed in people originate from others.
In life, people are to do what they want of their lives. And, by doing that, they fall into a process where they start being part of distinct social groups that are likely to change or guide their way of thinking. That is to say, even a person, being part of a general community, tends to relate with diverse micro-societies that share common similitudes: opinions; dress codes; religion; academic background, or even a way of talking (jargon). Thus, it is easy to say that everyone has belonged to something, sometime. When talking about groupings, there are some aspects that have to be considered.
The Optimal Distinctiveness Framework (Brewer, 1991) challenges this assumption by arguing that people are motivated to choose social identities that satisfy the need for inclusion and distinctiveness, regardless of whether or not the distinctiveness is positive. Self-Categorization Theory focus on the conditions for and consequences of social identification, whereas Social Identity Theory focus explain the emergence of social categorization and the reasons for in-group favoritism. A social categorization is more likely to be used if it is one that a person uses often or if it fits the context. Whether or not it is relevant to the context depends on if it corresponds to observed differences between people in the situation, or if it is helps to make sense of behavior in accordance to
Not necessarily an appreciation and usually consists of only surface level information (Cornell Thomas and John Butler, (2000). Essentialism/Assimilation is the practice of categorizing a group based on artificial social constructions that impart an “essence” of that group, which homogenizes the group and effaces individuality and differences. The word implies that we are forming conclusions, relationships, and other cultural ties based only on the essential elements, as determined by “us.” It also implies that there is some minimal level of understanding that applies to groups (Cornell Thomas and John Butler (2000). Multiculturalism is the practice of acknowledging and
c) Consensual discrimination involves formation of legitimate status hierarchies. BIAS Map by Cuddy et al. (2007): Behaviours from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes (BIAS) map is an extension of the Stereotype Content model which explains that the dominance and the competitiveness of the group is related to the image of the group viz a viz warmth and competence by the other groups. The warmth dimension of stereotypes leads to active behavioural tendencies whereas the competence dimension leads to passive behavioural tendencies. Discrimination can be viewed from different theoretical frameworks: 1.