Social influence refers to the ways in which external factors bring about change in an individual. An individual can change in the way they think and organize their behaviours and actions. There are three groups of social influence, including conformity, compliance, and obedience, affecting an individual 's everyday life. Conformity is a type of group behaviour in which a member changes their attitudes and beliefs to match those of others within the group (Constable, Shuler, Klaber, & Rakauskas, 2015). Similarly, compliance refers to when an individual accepts influence from a group to achieve a favourable reaction from them (Constable, Shuler, Klaber, & Rakauskas, 2015).
It allows one to understand hoe the society fits together and the consequences that might arise when the community is affected by social change. Secondly, sociology enables one to develop a sense of appreciation for the diversities that are found in a set of people. It also develops the knowledge of an individual on a range of issues including human behavior, the social organization as well as culture. 6. Introduce one classical sociological
Henri Tajfel’s social identity theory hypothesizes that if someone wishes to boost their self-image, based on either personal or social identities, they try to build up their self-esteem. This implies that to be able to feel important and needed in their society, they can improve their self-esteem through personal or group accomplishments. The cognitive process of social categorization establishes the social identity theory. Many social aspects were formed by this theory, such as: stereotyping, favoritism and ethnocentrism. Social identification underlines these attitudes due to social categorization, which can cause competitive behavior.
The notion and the meaning of conflict have evolved with time. Before Coser, conflict was seen more as a source of social change and disintegration. However, the conflict theory we are referring to here is not necessarily an infliction of violence or atrocities, but a conflict that arises due to unequal distribution of power and resources. Theorists consider power to be an important element of conflict theory. For instance, who uses power or where is power located are two of the main concerns of conflict theory.
It is essential to understanding the social constructivist theory that you understand Gergen’s view of the subject. Gergen supports a form of social constructivism referred to as social constructionism. This theory is very similar to the social constructivist theory on how people create knowledge One problem that Gergen identifies is the problem of knowing other minds (1995). This is essential to his theory, because like social constructivism, social constructionism requires two separate actors. Gergen (1995) suggest, “that the contents of these minds are expressed in words and actions, how are we to determine what internal states these words and actions are attempting to express?
Sherif did this by creating competitive opportunities where one group had to win over the other to get the desired prize. The results of this experiment were that the groups displayed the same behaviors identified in the intergroup conflicts explored in the paper; derogatory statements about and harassment towards the other group, negative stereotyping, physical aggression, and the eventual distancing of themselves from one another. The ingroup cohesion grew stronger as the outgroup hostility
In psychology , the ethnic idebtity emerged in the social identity theory 2 The affirmation of ethnicity has been proposed to be more salient among groups who have faced greater discrimination, in order to maintain self-esteem. The ethnic identity is emphisisd also by the aligience or the acceptence of a certain cultural behavior under a collective identity . This colective identity is due to the individual menbership to a society and also the influence of the familly culture and the group that shar the same culture , language and custums. Identity in genaral and ethnic identity specifically saw salient devellopment during the adolescent perieod as stated by Erick Erickson . According to Erickson's psychological approach to identity, all humans face a specific crisis of identity development, however, during the adolescence periede this crisis is severe and would lead to the clash between identity and self role .
Social psychology is the study of the effect of social groups upon an individual and their behaviour, the impact on the person's thoughts or cognitive processes. These can affect the person's interactions with others, the way they relate and act towards others and the thoughts an individual has about themselves
The most important goal of the preventative diplomacy is facilitating the cooperation in solving the problems which exist between the conflicting parties, which can be done by means of mediation. Another important function of the preventative diplomacy - is trying to alter the incentives of the conflicting parties, minimizing the threat of conflict escalation. “Conditional incentives, threats of sanctions and of the use of force, and public diplomacy all change the parties’ calculations of the benefits of seeking confrontation or cooperation with the other side” . The third important task of preventative diplomacy includes the actions seeking to “strengthen moderates and manage spoilers within each side’s leadership, through assistance, threats, and sanctions” . According to the 33rd article of the UN Charter, mediation, conciliation, enquiry, negotiation, arbitration, judicial settlement etc.
Social identity theory Social Identity theory (SIT) was founded by Tajfel and Turner in 1979, as a social-psychological perspective. Social identity theory explains that the identity of people is built out of perceived memberships to groups, like gender, age, religion and organizational membership, and self-image partly derives from the social categories which the person feels he belongs to. As people join several groups, one has different identities and behaviours to align with a specific group. The theory predicts that intergroup behaviours are explained by the perceived group statuses, legitimacy and stability of these differences and the possibility to change groups (Tajfel and Turner, 1979). Tajfel and Turner explain three assumptions