The three psychological theories which are used to explain the causes of prejudice and discrimination will be evaluated and outlined in this essay. Prejudice is a negative feeling directed at members of a group just because they are part of the group. Discrimination can be seen as the behavioural expression of prejudice i.e. the behaviour or negative actions, directed at members of other group, mainly based on their sex, ethnicity, age or social class. The mass murder of Jews by the Nazi’s in the Second World War is an example of prejudice and discrimination.
By means of self-categorization and membership of a group, people cultivate a social identity that functions as a social-cognitive scheme (customs, standards and attitudes) for their group associated action. The tendency is for the perceiver to consider these attributes as vital to his or her own personality and thus use these attributes to label others (Hoffman Harburg, & Maier, 2014). Some vital end results of social identity and self categorization include stereotyping, prejudice and conflict (Tajfe & Turner, 2004). That is, as the identity groups engage in in-group, the out-group members are likely to be discriminated. The formation of sub-groups (“us” versus “them”) within an organization due to demographics diversity may pose
That is what called as groups' stereotypes. When we look at a group of people that stand out from the norm, we put them into another category without identifying their merits. It always happen in society that is people stereotype people. We sometimes put a tag of superiority or inferiority onto a stereotype. We judge and criticize these stereotypes, and we do not even recognize the individuals in their groups.
“Stereotypes are categories that have gone too far,” says John Bargh, Ph.D., of New York University. “When we use stereotypes, we take in the gender, the age, the colour of the skin of the person before us, and our minds respond with messages that say hostile, stupid, slow, weak. Those qualities aren’t out there in the environment. They don’t reflect reality.” Bargh believes that stereotypes emerged from the social psychology term of “in group/out group dynamics” found exclusively in the social identity theory. The concept of social identity theory describes a person’s sense of identity or who they truly are based on their group membership(s).
According to Hall and Itzin, a stereotype is an exaggerated, misleading and distorted representation of a group of people or a person through the reduction of that group or person to a few essential characteristics. Itzin explains a stereotype as representing “a set of ideas or a set of beliefs about people - an ideology rather than as people as they are.” Therefore stereotypes in the
At one moment or the other we have either stereotyped a group of persons (oversimplified ideas about groups of people) or be prejudice in our thinking (thoughts and feelings about those groups), worst still discriminatory toward them (through actions). As mentioned, Stereotypes can be based on race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation almost any characteristic, such as when members of a dominant racial group suggest that a subordinate racial group is stupid or lazy. In either case, the stereotype is a generalization that doesn’t take individual differences into
The hypothesis in this theory is that members of a specific group will seek to get negative sides of the other groups they do not belong to inorder to enhance their own self image. Tajfel (1979) proposes that categorising people comes from a normal cognitive process (tendency we have) and by doing this, we are creating differences and similarities in different groups. He further illustrates the process with a diagram as
Social mobility and social change- are another two distinctive characteristics that describe two extremes of interpersonal and intergroup interaction. The first characteristic indicates that a person if suffers from being a member of one group could change the membership for a more desirable category. The second characteristic presents an opposite situation that a person who belongs to one group and experiences dissatisfaction with his group position could not change individually his membership to another more preferred category. He could only change his position together with the group or as a group member (Tajfel, 1975). In order to demonstrate the distinctive features of the intergroup behaviour Nelson (1989) used a social network analysis.
In other words, people will try to obtain positive distinctiveness relative to out-group members in order to protect and maintain their self esteem as group members (Leets). It is critical that we explore the role that social categories play in how people see each other because it can shed light on the processes inherent in racism. Racial and/or ethnic name calling is one mechanism groups used to maintain positive in-group image while casting a negative image on
“Stereotypes are belief about the characteristics or attributes and behaviors of members of certain groups. They are also theories about how and why certain attributes go together” (Hilton, von Hippel,1996 pg). Persons are assigned into different categories as a form of organizing society into simpler manageable groups. As it depicts the social attitude towards others that may or may not fit into another person’s standings, it can be positive or negative and can occur involuntary at times. Labeling is a social phenomenon that has been in existence from the beginning of time.