Therefore, finding an explanation through psychology, for the different specific reactions that human beings exhibit is important. Social psychology is an important sector of psychology that takes interpersonal relationships into consideration. Over the years, many theories have been developed to aid in explaining human behavior, especially ones that administer social experiences. The main focus of this assignment is the analysis of the cognitive dissonance theory in social psychology. Cognitive dissonance theory attempts to explain the human behavior through cognition, in which individuals always look for stability in their attitudes and behaviors (Festinger, 1985).
First they state that more research is needed to differentiate among various types of shame and guilt observed in different cultural settings. Secondly they argue that more researches are needed to prove that the differences in the valuation, view, behaviour, consequences of guilt and shame in collectivistic as well as in the individualistic cultures described by many scholars are in fact due to the difference in the concept of self in these cultures. Thirdly they suggest that more studies are needed to measure the physiological and behavioural components of shame and guilt. Forth suggestion they put forward is that future research should examine the development of shame and guilt across cultural contexts. Fifth suggestion is that because within each culture there exists variation in models of shame and guilt and future research is needed to test this hypothesis.
The three mental processes are namely; Social Categorisation, Social Identification and Social Comparison. Social Categorisation We tend to classify objects into groups in order to understand and identify them. Along the same line we put the people around us including ourselves into groups in order to comprehend our social world. We utilise social classifications like male, female, Hindu, Christian, local, foreigner and taxi driver because they are useful. By allocating people into different categories we are garner information about these people.
The significant part in structuring our identity like group members is done by The auto and heterostereotypes and they help us to understanding and justify given attitudes toward members of out-group. This understanding is supported by The social performances frame and the identity issue explain social practices and norms. Stereotypes are part of a wider cultural system that directs our behavior in different social contexts not only adjust particular interactions of
Psychology according to behaviourists is the scientific study of mental processes, its main goal being to control behaviour (Watson 1913). There are many theoretical perspectives that help identify factors that influence behaviour and these include the behaviourist approach, the psycho-dynamic approach and the socio-cultural approach. Thabani as cited in the case study is going through a phase of emotional distress and this is impacting his behaviour. The psycho-dynamic approach and the socio-cultural approach might help to identify the source of his problems. Children tend to develop as they participate in socio-cultural activities (Martin, Nelson& Tobach1995).
Sociolinguistics is primarily concerned with what affects people including the relationship between language and society. Sociolinguistics is also concerned with how multilingual speech communities use language as they interact with one another (Wardhaugh, 2006). As proposed by the term, it primarily involves two disciplines which are linguistics and sociology (Spolsky as cited in Nooyen, 1999). Sociolinguists are interested in language because of its characteristic which explains why people speak differently in different social contexts which includes people’s varied ways of saying strings or set of words and sentences. Semantics, as one subfield of linguistics is pedagogically significant.
Their topics vary from the micro level of the individual agencies and interactions to the macro level of the systems and the social structure. There were three Sociologists whose insights into socialization made a huge impact on human lives. Their names were Charles Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead and Jean Piaget. These men studied many characteristics that dealt with human behavior, actions as it relates to how humans act in different situations and people in general. These men used some of the same techniques when testing humans in various situations in order to come up with their theories.
Research in social sciences cover a wide spectrum of issues, involves variegated forms of data and perspectives that may influence the feelings, perspectives, attitudes and values people in the research process may hold (McCosker et al., 2001). The practicality of methodologies in research affect how people involved in the research feel. Qualitative researches aimed at investigating social phenomenon employ research instruments such as interviews, focus group discussions and observation (Beck, 2016). As suggested by Farberow (1963) such researches may study subject matters that inspire feelings of dread or awe and may incite melancholy in some cases. These topics of study may be confidential, (Lee, 1993), may inspire stigmatization if doled
Because it relies on the study of people and their behaviour towards different things, anthropologists go first hand into situations containing particular behaviours to better understand why they are present. This is a benefit for their and other science researches about the human brain and the complexity behind different behaviours. Anthropologists use this information to further conceive ways to eliminate negative behaviours and replace them with positive ones. Below are the results of the survey conducted towards students between the ages of 14-20. This survey was to find out how much knowledge students have about the changes in behaviour and if they have been the taught the difference between right reinforcement and wrong reinforcement.
Psychological theories like learning, motivation and leadership are also considered to the study of the behaviour of an individual. It has also studies the factor like learning, perception, belief and attitude of each individual. OB studies the impact of psychological factor upon behaviour and job performance at individual level. Organization consists of people with differ in personal characteristics and demo-graphical factors. The difference in individual is analysed by understanding their behaviour and reaction to organizational policies, procedures and practices.