The Critical Ways in Which Ethnocentrism, Stereotyping, Prejudice, And Discrimination Act As Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication Ethnocentrism refers to the belief of considering one 's culture as better than the culture of another ethnic group. Stereotyping refers to the various assumptions created by people concerning the characteristics of members of a particular cultural group. Prejudice refers to the judgment made by individuals over past experiences rather than an evaluation of present circumstances. Discrimination alludes to the unjust treatment of persons in light of their particular qualities, for example, age, sexual orientation, race, disability, and religion. Miscommunication In most cases, barriers to effective intercultural
Racial microaggression is invisible, people tend to make it visible through exaggeration. Because of how the victim exaggerates a situation it evolves into a language of expression for them. The victims are going to take advantage of this power if they are in a situation they feel insulted (microaggression). Dr. Derald Wing Sue, Ph. D. quote "Not because they see themselves as the victim, but empowered them by giving them a language of expression.
Whether through art or language, representations of identity ensue from processes that communicate what manners of being are considered culturally valid within a society. The expression of these expected conditions of existence depends on normative forms of social conditioning, and it is from within this fixed set of self-reproducing actions that hegemonic apparatuses possess power over people. Owing to an ideological foundation situated among various terms pioneered by Gloria Anzaldúa in her piece titled Borderlands/La Frontera, José Esteban Muñoz develops an ability to comprehend how the performance of intersubjective queerness disturbs essences of normativity, and comforts those who disidentify with mainstream perception. The following concepts
2. How is institutional racism different from prejudice? Racism is the belief that one race is superior to another. That has to be taught, or developed as a cultural ideology (for example, the Spanish Reconquista) Prejudice is different. Prejudice is the pre-judging of a situation or person based upon less than all the facts.
Prejudice is not an action, but an idea directed towards a group or an individual. Discrimination is withholding opportunities to individuals because of prejudice cause. Discrimination is using action and can be negative or positive. The negative form of discriminating is when institutions can block opportunities to individuals. Also, positive discrimination is like affirmative action which allows more opportunities to be given to the disadvantaged group because of oppression inflicted on them.
Since the concept of stereotyping holds a broad scope, the essay will narrow down the focus to ethnic groups and their culture. If we assume that the use of stereotypes helps us to gain an understanding of the world, we may establish different profiles and characterizations on certain groups of people. For example: Jews are greedy, Muslims are terrorists, black people are criminals, Americans are obese, homosexuals are weak and so on. These assumptions are typical examples and have become so common today, that people may mistake them to be correct classifications of the certain groups and types of individuals, because they have been misunderstood or generalized due to one incident as well as influenced by certain factors. For example, History has played a
It explains how internal changes can occur in a system. For Merton, anomie occurs when there is a discontinuation between cultural goals and the accepted methods available for reaching them. Merton links anomie with deviance and argues that the discontinuity between culture and structure leads to deviance in society, which is a dysfunction. Using the American Dream as an example, Merton developed the strain theory. Merton argues that while many social groups try to achieve this dream, for some it is not possible.
To Parrillo, a person is not only influenced to have a discriminatory mentality psychologically wise but also socially wise. He presents us with two forms (Socialization and Social Norms) of how an individual is persuaded to incline towards having discriminatory thoughts due to his surroundings. According to Parrillo in “Causes of Prejudice”, socialization is where a person adopts the perspectives and moralities from those who surround her. These perspectives and moralities implement the thought of race as an opportunity to outcast those who do not possess the same benefits as the “inferior” individuals. The term social norms is in a way similar to the term socialization, it just refers to a more personal level of influence.
Social inequalities can be described as the differences in “income, resources, power and status” (Naidoo and Wills 2008, in Warwick-Booth 2013, 2) that advantage a social class, a group or an individual over another, and thereby establish social hierarchies. It also affects inequalities in regards to gender, race, access to health and education, and general living conditions. In sociology, the dichotomy between the conflict theory approach and the functionalist approach has led to a discordant opinion in regards to social inequalities. The conflict theory seems to admit that social inequalities needs to disappear in order to install a common and equal base for all individuals, whereas the functionalist approach believes that social inequalities
They argue that it has many major flaws, but they acknowledge that parts of theory have some truth to it. Throughout this essay, cultural relativism will be questioned, but also supported in some ways. The idea of cultural relativism reminds me of a sociological term--ethnocentrism--that essentially means the opposite. Ethnocentrism is essentially a bias about your own culture against other cultures. One can only see their culture (usually as dominant to the others), rather than attempting to see the perspective of whatever culture is in question.
The attitude of the dominant group towards other racial groups are positional: a term that defines the shape of the sense of the supremacy of the groups over other minority groups. On the other hand, the subordinate group is usually motivated by unfair treatment by the dominant group. The idea is to secure a great share of the benefits they will accrue. The attitudes that define racial differences does not only reflect on the prejudice to the level of an individual but also to a larger extent where the fear of the dominant in losing resources or privilege to the other racial groups. Sometimes, the fear could be on the beliefs of the minority members that the interest of the groups might be challenged by the existing race (Weitzer and Tuch
Further suggestion found in Racially Biased Policing a Principled Response is that data collection helps agencies effectively allocate and manage department resources (p. 117). Furthermore, those who are against and oppose data collection of the phenomenon presumably believe social science is not capable of answering or providing valid answers to questions, meaning some departments aren’t sure the collection of data would benefit them
Australia is known as a country of freedom and fairness, however many groups such as youth, the unemployed, aged, and ethnic groups tend to become marginalised because of their minority status. Certain groups are marginalised because they are perceived as being different or undeserving of equality in society. This is called stereotyping and it leads to prejudice and discrimination. This essay explores three marginalised groups and discusses some of the reasons why they are marginalised and the effects on those within these groups. Exclusion from areas such as employment and other services and opportunities that other Australian 's take for granted, is a result of the marginality of indigenous Australian 's, woman, and those with
To the question of whether multiculturalism is a real possibility, we first need to define multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is not tolerance. Multiculturalism is finding value in paradigms shared by groups other than our own. Outsider artists present the challenging question of whether we can value personalized paradigms belonging to individuals or do we simply group outsider artists into one space and call them outsiders and value them for their difference from us as a group without worrying about how they differ from each other. The danger of the latter approach is that when we group people, ignoring their individuality, we dehumanize them.
In response to the criticism offered by me, Coates is likely treat it as sort of false patriotism and as being not entirely in conjunction with reality. That, racism, and discrimination based on it thereof, is an undeniable reality, even in today’s society, seen in many facets of the country, whether explicit or disguised under policies and false consciousness. Furthermore, the fact that the discrimination is based on a system of caste and not class, that is, one which someone is born into and cannot change; defeats the purpose of providing opportunity, that each individual is, or at least should be entitled to as citizens, and hence would be construed as a violation of basic rights. Even still, the harms caused by racism are prevalent even