Horizontal Inequality (HI) is inequality among groups as opposed to among individuals or households (Vertical Inequality). These groups are culturally differentiated and members of these groups share a common identity. Basically Horizontal inequalities are inequalities based on these group identities and these identities are constructed and defined through cultural convictions. Group identities can be spread across three dimensions, Economic, Social and Political (Stewart, 2009). So, Horizontal Inequality can be Inequalities in terms of different group’s access to economic/social/political resources.
In order to properly understand the contradictions of a capitalist society, key concepts such as the structure of capitalism, social theories and how Marxism works must be taken into consideration. Marx’s analysis of the social theory had some key assumptions. According to Best (2003) Marx viewed the society we live in and its literature and politics parts as a factor determined by the capitalist mode of production. There are two parts to this mode, the economic base which is made of two further parts: the relations of production which refer to class relations and the forces of production that are made up of all things from nature that we need in order to produce commodities (Best, 2003). The Labour theory of value examines how it is indeed the workers who put the value into commodities; it explains the class exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie.
In other words, they appear to be qualitatively distinct from other kinds of jobs in the market.” (Pg. 258). I will touch more on the dual market theory and its importance to creating stratification later in the paper. I would also like to touch on how the filling of these jobs within these markets can be, and often times is achieved through social reproduction. Social reproduction theory which “examine how inequality is reproduced over and over again in our everyday behavior and situations…Social reproduction identifies the barriers to social mobility, barriers that constrain without completely blocking lower and working class individuals’ efforts to break into the upper reaches of the class structure”(Pg.
These include inequality based on access to the available opportunities and inequality based on conditions accorded to different classes and positions within the society. Inequality on the basis of the existing opportunities in the society can be explained by the society’s existing unequal distribution of chances that can enable an individual to succeed in the society. Important measures that can illustrate a society’s inequality of opportunities include the ways different people within the society are treated by the criminal justice system, health status of different social classes in the society, and the level of education attained in different classes in the
Beteille (1983) made a useful distinction between two aspects of inequality – the relational and the distributional aspects. The sociologist is mostly concerned with the first kind, whereas the economist is with the second. In the first case, inequalities are seen as built into the social structure in the form of relations of superordination and subordination, i.e. the patterns of rights and obligations. The economist, on the other hand, sees inequality in the distribution of wealth or income, or, following Sen, in the distribution of certain ‘outcome indicator’ like health or educational status.
Home assignment #3 Educational system reflect social inequalities. And my analysis include sociological conflict theory like a key. And economical factor that affect educational, professional and social progression. Social conflict theory sees social life as a competition and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. Social conflict theory is a macro-oriented paradigm in sociology that views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change.
In ‘Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts’ (1844), Marx considers labor as a conscious act, as opposed to just a physical act. Marx identidied four components of alienation: alienation from product of labour, alienation from productive activity, alienation from the human species, and alienation from fellow human beings. In today’s capitalistic society, the means of production are under external ownership, making “the result and purpose of labor appear external to the worker”, as compared to the primitive feudal times where one would produce for their own consumption and use. Marx points out the alienation of workers separates individuals from their labour and how the capitalists are segregated from the workers. Alienation demonstrates a socio-psychological condition in which
Some of the key problems that Marx associates with the capitalist system are the fact that he think that racism, sexism and heterosim are all by products of capitalism (Romkey, 2018). He says that discrimination is a part of capitalism and that it made to produce such types of discrimination. He also talks frequently about the fact that due to the conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat many problems occur. This includes the fact that the bourgeoisie only care about the surplus value and could not care less about the workers that make the products that give them these profits. (Romkey, 2018).
Early meta-analytic work by Barrick and Mount (1991) provided evidence suggesting that personality traits might have some degree of utility for selecting employees into a variety of jobs. Therefore, this research regards the personality trait as a root cause of the socio-economic inequality and as a predictor of individual's job performance. This relation between economic behavior and psychological factor can be explained by one of the well-known assessment tools with its proven validity and reliability. Today, socio-economic inequality is one of the major problems studied by economists, sociologists and psychologists. It is the state of affairs in which assets, wealth, or income are distributed unequally among individuals in a group,