2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.2.1 Social learning theory This a theory postulated by Albert Bandura, the theory suggests that much learning takes place through observing the behaviors of others. This theory acknowledges that human beings are capable of cognition or thinking and that they can benefit from observation and experience. Social learning theory recognizes that much of human learning takes place through watching other people model various behaviors. Social learning focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. It considers how people learn from one another, encompassing such concepts as observational learning, imitation and modelling (McLeod, 2011).
220.127.116.11 Bandura’s social cognitive theory (1997) While one strand of research grounded in Rotter’s Social Learning Theory developed, a second strand emerged, growing out of Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and his construct of Self-Eﬃcacy, as initially described in his 1977 article, ‘‘Self-Eﬃcacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change’’. Bandura (1997) defined perceived Self-Efficacy as ‘‘beliefs in one’s capabilities
In it’s essence, it occurs when an individual assumes their privately held beliefs are fundamentally different from the views of those around them, and thus act in accordance with this false perception (Cite). When examining the drinking behaviours of college age students, Schroeder and Prentice (1998) found sufficient evidence to argue that social processes play a role in promoting certain behaviours (i.e. binge drinking). Their research further led to the discovery of inconsistencies with these same students’ attitudes towards drinking, their perception of their peers’ attitudes, and their actual self reported behaviours and habits. This work builds off of many previous studies, including the work of Prentice and Miller (1993) which found students, in their first to fourth year of study, rated themselves as less comfortable than the average student, and less comfortable than their friends with drinking on campus.
Bandura’s theory concentrates on how individuals view the behaviour of others and immediately learn and develop new conducts, the Social Learning Theory demonstrates reasons for people imitating those behaviours. The Social Learning Theory explains individual’s imitating behaviours through the process of modeling. There are three core concepts of SLT, first is the idea of individuals learning through observation, second is the individual’s mental state and lastly is the fact that learning does not necessarily mean change in behaviour. Moreover, there are three models under observation which include “a live model that involves an individual demonstrating or acting out a behaviour, a verbal instruction model that has descriptions and explanations of behaviour and symbolic model that
Social Learning Theory The first theory, I used to inspect my personal that is Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. This theory has advanced the social cognitive perspective of personality. There are few main concepts of this theory include reciprocal determinism, observational learning and modeling, and self-regulation. His theory emphasizes modeling as a way of learning by observing others and criticizes cultures for providing inappropriate models such as aggression. In his theory, Bandura assumes that people learn from one another, via observation, and imitation and modeling.
Deutsch & Gerard identified the Dual Process Model of Conformity (1955) - the two psychological needs that lead humans to conform: 1. Our need to be right (Informational social influence) and; 2. Our need to be liked (Normative social influence) * Research in social psychology focused primarily on two main types of conformity namely Information conformity (informational social influence) and Normative conformity (normative social influence) (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2005). Information conformity * Information social influence happens when a person turns to the members of the group to obtain information. The person is most likely to make use of this in 3 situations: When a situation is unclear, the person becomes uncertain what to do.
In differential reinforcement, it occurs, “when behavior is reinforced by either rewarded or punished while interacting with others” (Siegel, 240). This theory helps us understand how socialization can condition
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura’s (1997) social learning theory states that people learn from their interactions with others. It says that people learn from watching each other or by imitation. There are three types of Bandura’s social learning theory: observational learning, imitation, and behavior modeling (Bruner, 1990; Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976). Bandura’s social learning theory says that humans cannot learn for themselves, thus they have to control the variables in their surroundings to influence their own learning (Bandura, 1999). By this information above, we can see that we are both learners and copies of the observed action.
• Social Cognitive Therapy According to Sue et al (1997:350) this form of therapy makes use of a psychodynamic styled approach in treating an individual’s depressive state by working on their social skills with others. In achieving this, the methods used in other styles of treatment, such as mental-habitual remedial treatment, are applied. The rationale associated in this type of treatment is that depressive states of mind take place as a result of social situations, in which the need to deal with certain conflictions and problems need be sorted out amicably. At this level the individual is provided with an internal look at what the conflicts are and how they need be resolved. This is done by teaching the clientele how to establish issues
Self-efficacy is based in a great theoretical framework known as Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), in which there are bidirectional communications between the cognitive, behavioral and environmental or situational contexts (Wood & Bandura, 1989). Self-efficacy beliefs are not a stable attribute of an individual, but they are an active and learned system of beliefs held in context. The thought of self-efficacy is interested with judgments of one’s ability to produce a given pattern of behavior (Schunk, 1981). Social cognitive hypothesis is developed from the view of human agency. In this view, individuals are measured as factors who are contained in their own progression and, by means of their actions, they are able to make things happens.