Social Learning Theory

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Deviance and Social Learning
Literature review
The study of deviance and social learning theory uses different variables in determining the extent of using in each substance. The concept and variables of social learning theory are the imitation, definition, differential association, and differential reinforcement towards the explanation of deviant behavior. These variables served as the predictors in illustrating the results of the past research conducted. Most of the variables being used give a wide range in the extension of the study to elaborate the effects and results of its variants in the commission of an act.
According to Akers (1998), social learning as a general theory explains criminal and deviant behavior through maintaining
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It refers to the balance of the rewards and punishments that follow as consequences of the behavior being performed. The imbalance of this variable’s may increase the probability and likelihood of the individual to commit deviant acts. Accordingly, differential reinforcement is divided into two categories which is either positive or negative, and which occurs in two ways, namely the social and nonsocial reinforcement (Akers, 1998). Positive reinforcement is real and imagined rewards for the commission of the behavior, while negative reinforcement is the avoidance of the individual to escape from the situation (Akers, 1998). In terms of social and nonsocial reinforcement, nonsocial reinforcement refers particularly to the series of events which takes place in socialization process and other learning factors as well as the traits and attitudes of an individual which will lead them to a delinquent life. In contrast, social reinforcement is the actual initiation of the anticipated behavior through the influence of material and valuable rewards that is present in the society. The final concept of social learning theory may motivate individuals to commit violations or deviant acts in the same direction of definitions. Differential reinforcement discussed the influence of rewards and punishments in developing and learning deviant behaviors…show more content…
In the meta-analysis of Pratt et.al (2010), they found out in their study that, differential association gives the strongest measured indicators of deviance and crime as peer behaviors effect across the empirical studies, while, definition give rather strong or stronger predictor in crime and deviance which also contributes a large number of effect size. Additionally, differential reinforcement gives a weak response as a predictor in deviance or crime which is either moderate or less consistent variables and provides a low effect size in effecting delinquent behavior. In terms of imitation, it gives the modest as the best variant; however, this variable of social learning theory was regarded as relatively weak because this portion was not being well supported by empirical literature (Pratt et. al., 2010).In a longitudinal test of social learning theory of Akers and Lee (1996), they state that the effects of engaging in smoking show the model of differential association as peer association is the clearer learning variables as compared to the definition and reinforcement. They noted that the general learning process takes place in the stage of the life cycle that may somewhat vary in age and peer influence (Akers & Lee, 1996). In the study conducted in Greece, Ukraine, and Russia (2012) they use social learning theory which focuses only definition and differential

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