Social Learning Theory Study

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he study of deviance and social learning theory uses different variables in determining the extent of using in each substance. The concept and variables of social learning theory are the imitation, definition, differential association, and differential reinforcement towards the explanation of deviant behavior. These variables served as the predictors in illustrating the results of the fast research conducted. Most of the variables being used give a wide range in the extension of the study to elaborate the effects and results of its variants in the commission of an act.
According to Akers, social learning as a general theory explains criminal and deviant behavior through maintaining and acquiring social and nonsocial factors that motivate
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Imitation is the least complex of all of the four variables in social learning theory. It occurs when the individual is engaged in learning the behavior which is modeled by others and through observation of the behavior being performed and presented by others (Akers & Jennings 2009). Imitation of one’s behavior exist in the form of modeling, observation, socialization, communication whether verbal or nonverbal and other pattern behavior present in every routine activities. The process of learning through imitation exists throughout an individual’s life in every stages of development. In addition, the process of imitation is still assumed to be an effective way in maintaining or desisting from a given behavior (Akers & Jennings…show more content…
It refers to the balance of the rewards and punishments that follow as consequences of the behavior being performed. The imbalance of this variable’s may increase the probability and likelihood of the individual to commit deviant acts. Accordingly, differential reinforcement is divided into two categories which is either positive or negative, and which occurs in two ways, namely the social and nonsocial reinforcement (Akers 1998). Positive reinforcement is real and imagined rewards for the commission of the behavior, while negative reinforcement is the avoidance of the individual to escape from the situation (Akers 1998). In terms of social and nonsocial reinforcement, nonsocial reinforcement refers particularly to the series of events which takes place in socialization process and other learning factors as well as the traits and attitudes of an individual which will lead them to a delinquent life. In contrast, social reinforcement is the actual initiation of the anticipated behavior through the influence of material and valuable rewards that is present in the society. The final concept of social learning theory may motivate individuals to commit violations or deviant acts in the same direction of definitions. Differential reinforcement discussed the influence of rewards and punishments in developing and learning deviant behaviors (Akers
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