In 1985 Robert Agnew a sociologist come to an interest of studying the theory and finds a potential for the theory in explaining several causes of crime in society, but due to its limitation he developed and reformulated the theory to widen its dimension or scope. After revising the theory he come up into General strain theory of crime and builds its foundation in 1992. General strain theory argues that frustrations and anger leads someone to deviance and may result into committing a crime (Agnew, 1992). GST defines strains as negative life events and conditions which are commonly disliked by the people who experience it or negative experiences of a person in a given group (Agnew, 1992; 2001; 2006). Strain is often classified in two distinct types, the Objective Strain and the Subjective Strain.
A comparison between the Due process model and crime control model Within the criminal justice system, there are two competing models: the crime control model and the due process model. These two models were constructed by Robert Packer and each represents a particular school of thought. In managing crime, there is the individual i.e. the suspect and there is the society. The due process model is seen to focus on the suspect whereas the crime control model focuses on the society. This paper analyzes these two models and based on the rate of crime in the society, makes recommendations as to which is the best model in criminal justice.
Stereotypes are the ugly truth, that become exaggerated. A person becomes stereotyped by the way they act and behave a certain way. Stereotypes consist of two people or more which create a group. Everyone is categorized in groups by a stereotype that is associated with them. For instance, at a high school there are the jocks, the preps, the geeks, the poser and et cetera.
Antisocial individuals, outcasts and delinquents will be found together and will therefore motivate and influence each other into violent or criminal behaviour. In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states that behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. A normal offender will find a crime rewarding because he has learnt to commit a crime from observing people he models. These individuals are exposed to high levels of aggression and other factors portrayed by models that range from family, members of the community and neighbours, friends, celebrities and characters from movies and books. Violence has become a regular on our television screens, whether be it cartoons, war in the news or action movies.
However, crimes are committed whilst in prison, such as drugs and assaults. Some critics say the ‘three strikes and you are out’ law where repeat offenders get a longer sentence are wrong, as the third strike could be a lesser crime such as public disorder. Nevertheless, if just incapacitation and no rehabilitation some critics say will be costlier to society as they will go out and reoffend and, they are not employed and pay taxes. Rehabilitation is also a punishment which should improve the offender's behaviour and stop them committing crimes. Advocates of rehabilitation state prison does not work; however, critics of rehabilitation state prison does work as the criminal cannot commit a crime against the public while incarcerated (Cavadino, 2007 p 36/56).
Social process theory has several subdivisions including: social control theory, social learning theory and social reaction (labeling) theory (will only focus on social control theory). Social control theory insinuates every person has the possibility of becoming a criminal, but most people are influenced by their bonds to society. It contends that individuals obey the law and are less likely to commit crime if they have: learned self-control, attachment (to family, friends, peers, education, etc.), commitment (to school, learning, etc.), involvement (in leisure activities, sports, etc.), and belief (those that are positive). According to social control theory, an individual is more likely to be criminal/deviant if they are detached and alienated (from friends, education, family, etc.),
This great concept reflects that while we are attributing success to our internal characteristics, we are blaming others for any negative events and assigning failures to outside factors. Self-Serving Bias module describes that we do not always clarify things objectively, while we are making judgements about other people and events. Also, self-serving bias as a part of cognitive biases, gives an opportunity for people to protect their self-esteem which means that by attributing positive things to themselves, people improve their confidence and by blaming others for negative events, people avoid personal responsibility. In my opinion, it is not surprise that almost everyone in the world have faced such situations since self-serving bias works in every aspect of life. I also have faced such situations in which I assigned success to my own skills and blamed others for negative events.
The role of a criminal psychologist is not just to use their expertise to figure out the mind of a criminal, but it is also used for understanding, developing and improving the life of the people they deal with. When a person commits a crime that the police cannot fully understand or handle, they can call in the help of a criminal psychologist. Different methods of solving and understanding a situation can be used. Criminal psychologists are involved in many parts of the legal process, whether its interviews, assessments, therapy or prison life, they can have a huge input on a case.
Each of these disciplines try to explain why crime is committed and how people are compelled to commit crime, a good example is sociology. Sociology attributes crime due to poor socialization in society, while psychology attributes crime mainly due to biological and Pathological criminogenic behaviors. Many scholars have tried to define crime and each has given many reasons why crime is committed. Scholars such Cesare Lombroso attribute
Instead the ideas are form based on the media depictions and illustrations of both crime and criminals. It has been shown that violent crimes are more likely to gain the attention of the media. There are three factors influencing the selection of media crime stories unusual circumstances, dramatic elements, and involvement of famous people. Crime is used to sell. The media portrays crime and criminals in a stereotypical manner.
The official statistics can be used to educate about the prevalence and immorality of committing domestic abuse crimes. As the message continues to resonate through society that violence is unacceptable, younger generations are more likely to mature without considering physical abuse as an option to relieve anger. (Mouzos and Makkai, 2004) Men who supported gender equality showed far lower levels of violence than those who believed in the ‘traditional gender roles’. Likewise, women who were more ‘traditional’ were also less likely to report incidents of domestic violence.
Is this the role of race in criminal justice system? Is it really designed to entrap, discriminate, arrest, and imprison a mass number of the minority. To be stereotyped and “tagged” as a criminal, degrades the young community and hinders their chances of progression.
The purpose of this article is to discuss how discrimination and implicit bias exist in the criminal justice system. In short, it talks about how people have a kind of “programmed” bias within themselves that they are unaware of. Even though discrimination is not accepted anymore, people still participate in it. The article discusses racial profiling, shooting- how blacks are more likely to be shot, and sentencing – how blacks have a higher chance of being convicted of murder. This text also explains how police officers are more likely to categorize blacks as criminals and they are more likely to be violent with them.
Convicted Felons and the Labeling Theory Paige Leary November 30, 2015 Criminology Delinquent, criminal, felon, all are labels that society give people who have been convicted of crime and therefore believed to have no respect for the law. Once an individual has been associated as someone who has no respect for the law they are often ostracized from their social groups. When a criminal has been denied by their friend groups they often begin to associate with people who are “like” them meaning that they are now associated with people who also engage in deviant behavior (Forensic Psych). All of the delinquent behavior that occurs after they have been ostracized from their original social group has been often the cause of them being