It allows one to understand hoe the society fits together and the consequences that might arise when the community is affected by social change. Secondly, sociology enables one to develop a sense of appreciation for the diversities that are found in a set of people. It also develops the knowledge of an individual on a range of issues including human behavior, the social organization as well as culture. 6. Introduce one classical sociological
Definition of sociological imagination Sociological imagination based on the thoughts of C. Wright Mills, needs a high element of critical thinking to understand the cross between ones current live and one’s history (Isaksen, n.d.). Social change is therefore dependent on knowledge and awareness of the varies relationships between an individual and a society. It allows one to be seen through social patterns which has influences on both the induvial and the society (Taylor, 2007). The space in which the relationship take place allows links to be comprehended by the viewer. These links help us view an individual in their own space, from an outside perspective.
Many psychologists in the late 1960s neglected the possibility that behavior was more than just biological in nature. However, some proposed that to answer this question we must consider that the psychology that would best explain this “crisis” was located in the social. Our day to day interactions with the people around us and the structure of our society as a whole was the cause of our behavior. This sociological theory is known as Social Constructionism, the development of collectively constructed understandings of society, or the world, that create the basis for assumptions that are shared by others in that society, ” Social constructionists, however, deny that their position embodies the kind of relativism which leads to self-refutation and absurd outcome of anything goes” (Hibberd 29). This theory generally attempts to answer the question stated above, what causes the different behaviors in individuals?
The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thoughts and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies. It is not a specialized area of sociology but instead deals with broad fundamental questions about the extent and limits of social influences on individual 's lives and the social-cultural basics of our knowledge about the world. (Weeks, n.d.) In this essay, works of Karl Mannheim (primarily Ideology and Utopia), George Herbert Mead (primarily Mind, Self and Society), and Berger-Luckmann are analysed to find how Berger-Luckmann developed their work (The Social Construction of Reality) building upon the existing works of Mannheim and Mead. Karl Mannheim was a Hungarian-born
Amir B. Marvasti briefly talks about two perspectives objectivism and constructivism.”Objectivism assumes that the information about the social world could be analyzed to reveal a reality or social structure beyond the data itself where as constructivism approaches data or social structure as a way of showing how the data, text or talk is organized and created through social interaction.” (Marvasrti A.B, 2004, p 83) Both of these perspectives are different from one another but they both interpret the information about society. It helps in analyzing qualitative data in different perspective because data in social research can be analysis through theory. Amir B. Marvasti trying to sate is that, there are different perspective from which we can analysis qualitative data but then there is this every changing relation between data and theory which is inevitable. Data is analyzed through theory and theory is produce through data, such theory is grounded theory that was developed by Glaser and Strauss in 1964. Grounded theory also knows as inductive approach gives importance to two main ideas, one is to highlighting on data analysis within the boundaries of data and another is to develop new theories from data.
researcher and the participants. Garcia and Quek (1997) stressed that researcher’s interpretations play a key role in this kind of study bringing “such subjectivity to the fore, backed with quality arguments rather than statistical exactness” Therefore, from all the above viewpoints, it is clear that interpretive methodology is a theoretical framework or perspective which is mainly based on the idea that the behaviour of social actors in social context can be understood by the meaning that social actors give to what they and other do. While interacting, the people interpret what is going on and this is what social life its patterned quality. Interpretation in sociological research takes place at two levels which can be explained as follows:
The relevance of sociology to counselling Sociologists study human's social lives, activities, interactions and processes, within the society of people, with examining how social influences affect different people's lives, Carrying out research in a form of social context from which the research hypothesis may be accepted, rejected or modified (Blundell & Griffiths, 2003: 4). In order to understand people of particular principles of professions (both sociology and counselling), it is necessary to understand their history, as well as the context in which they live , We tend to internalise the prevailing norms and values of our culture, easily believing that they reflect the truth in respect of our identities, however these prevailing concepts can blind us to the possibilities that others might offer us, whatever culture we belong to has influenced us to assign certain meanings to particular life events, and to treat others as relatively meaningless leading to having sudden crisis and seeking help from professionals (Freedman and Combs, 2002). Most helping professions such as counselling, psychology and sociology have developed moral codes that are intended to protect both the client and practitioner. These morals encourage professionals to perform in a accountable behaviour, ensuring quality
To understand this better, it is important that the concept of Social Learning Theory be discussed. Social learning theory is a theory that attempts and aims to explain the purpose of socialization and the effect of such things on the development of individual young people. There are many different theories that explain the concept of socialization. Some of these theories are psychoanalytic theory, conflict theory and symbolic interaction. Thos social learning theory aims at looking and observing each individuals learning process at each stage of their lives and how such people of the society influence the individuals.
Sociology is the study of the society and human behavior whereas, the word perspective can be defines as a view of things in their true connection or importance. Hence, the social perspectives provide standpoints used to look at human behavior and interaction as they relate to individuals and groups within society. The social perspective emphasizes that to understand humans for not what is inside of them, but what’s influencing them that should be observed. There are four theoretical perspectives used to understand society and human behavior. The four discussed here are structure functional, consensus and conflict, the gender problem and symbolic interaction.
Moreover, the relationship between ethnographers and informants in the field, which form the bases of subsequent theorizing and conclusions, are expressed through social interaction in which the ethnographer participates, thus ethnographers help to construct the observation that become their data. I am taking an example from the book “Reflexive Ethnography.” In this book “Powdermaker argued that participant observation requires both involvement and detachment achieved by developing the ethnographer’s ‘role of stepping in and out of society.’ In order to incorporate such insights into research