Therefore, this acts as an empowerment for people to strive and go beyond the traditional believes of ignorance (Karl Marx and Marxism, n.d). Communitrianism theory is a philosophical theory that bases focus on lowering the focus on individual freedom and rights while putting pressure on communal responsibilities. In this case, the definition of a community refers to a group of people such as a family, church, political group or state. This theory is based on three principles which are co-operative validation of any information, co-operative validation of values and equal participation and access to power in the society. This theory was supported by numerous philosophers who include Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Robert Owen and Henry tam among
To understand post-structuralism, one must understand structuralism. Structuralism values the binary system that defines what is the ‘truth’ and what is considered ‘false’. In Foucault’s studies about power and knowledge, those who have certain types of beliefs define the statements that are deemed ‘acceptable’. The ‘episteme’, Greek for understanding, of the time was shaped by thought and experience in the same time frame. Regarding
(Scruton, 2001, p.80) People have free will to subject themselves to objective, ethical, moral law. Kant developed his concept of autonomy in which rational individuals able to overcome heteronomous factors, especially include one’s own desire and interest. These elements may trigger conflict with reason and rationality of oneself. (Scruton, 2001, p.80) In this case, reason become a essential factor to how people act morally. Reason has the ability to govern freedom, and therefore it also determines behaviors.
In a study that was conducted by Mhiribidi (2010) it was revealed that in order to address social ills facing the African continent, academics and practitioners in Africa indicates that it is essential that the continent ought to promote the developmental rather than the remedial approach to social work. Zimbabwe is one of the countries that seem to have heeded this call. However it was discovered that public assistance scheme in Zimbabwe has remained essentially remedial, with only limited attempts made towards initiatives that facilitate a developmental thrust such as self-reliance (Mhiribidi, 2010). It also emerged from the study findings that at the policy level, the thrust of the Department of Social Services (DSS) is to implement both remedial and developmental approaches to social work, while on the ground only a few of the activities of the DSS could be regarded as developmental in nature. The reason given for this irregularity was mainly scarcity of resources.
This theory divided into some group of theories of the press, which are: Press Authoritarian Theory This theory is highly dependent on the power of the king who has absolute power. The main principle of this theory is as follows: - The press should not do anything that could undermine the existing authority. - Press forever (eventually) be subject to the existing authorities - The press should avoid acts against moral values and political or dominant majority Press the Liberal Theory According to this theory, humans basically have their rights naturally to pursue and develop their potential if given the climate of freedom of expression. The main principle of this theory is as follows: - The publication should be free of any censorship of the introduction by third party - The act of publishing and distribution should be open to every person or group without requiring a permit - There should no obligation to publish everything - There should no
Political ideology is a belief or understanding that is applied in a policy of a country. With the creation of the ideology adopted by individual, these ideologies have the primary goal is to make followers of the ideology run on a culture of understanding. The purpose of a political ideology that is the basis for opposition to power and provide the ground of legitimacy to the government, then becomes a means of communication between leaders and subordinates, besides the aim to provide guidance in choosing policy. According to Robert Eccleshall, Ideology can help to understand the social world. Ideology also explains how to realize the reality of social and political ideas that are arranged to be able to form a social organization.
It portrays the media as a predominantly unfavourable entity which either encourages inactivity and laziness, or encourages unsavoury behaviour such as violence and sex. Currivan and Gurevitch (1997) explain that there is controversy in arguments both for and against the effects model. The prospect of media effects can threaten self-respect, as the idea that the audience is a vulnerable, unsophisticated mass. It would also be suggestive that television, games and media in general must be the cause of a variety of social behaviours. Studies undertaken regarding effects have historically been inconsistent.
Fundamentally, the degree of media regulation can vary depending on political ideologies entrenched in different states. On the one hand, left-wing politicians generally espouse and preserve a high level of content diversity as the public interests, which include freedom of expression and information, are prioritised. On the other hand, in terms of content regulation, right-wing politicians often place an emphasis on the restriction of controversial and obscene media products (Haidt and Graham 2007), such as pornography, sexually explicit scenes as well as graphic violence. Despite the different perspectives towards media regulation, there are three prevalent forms of governmental regulation of contemporary media content. Firstly, governments often regulate content diversity by mandating the display of contending viewpoints in media products.
The integration of its assumptive, explanatory, and normative elements satisfies the criteria of paradigm status …[.] It provides a framework within which ‘applied’ theory and administrative practices may be developed and critically evaluated. Vincent Ostrom in his book entitled The Intellectual Crisis in American Public Administration (1973) moreover suggested a “democratic administration” (Otenyo 2006: 2) paradigm urging the need for “diverse democratic decision-making structures, popular participation in administration and dispersed administrative authority based upon structures overlapping jurisdiction and fragmented organisation” (Nasrullah 2005: 201). Thus a paradigm is something the scientists of a discipline agree upon and that guides their research. A mature science is characterised by its paradigm and as long as the so called normal science continues, researchers work within their paradigm to solve the riddles of their discipline.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Before we deal with what is Social Constructivism, what are its salient features, what role and importance it has as an IR theory, it’s important to have a brief idea about what do we mean by when we say International Relations Theory. Traditionally speaking, International Relations theories can be classified into two broad categories for proper understanding namely ‘Rationalist’ and ‘Reflectivist’, with theories such as Realism and Liberalism being seen as Rationalist perspective whereas other progressive theories such as feminism, Critical theory, post modernism etc. fall into the ambit of Reflectivist theories. When we say Rationalism, we basically mean that world can be understood and explained through the exercise of human reason, based on the assumptions about its rational structure. On the other hand Reflectivism focuses on the interpretation of events rather than empirical and observable data.