Since adults are largely self-determining, helping them develop metacognitive skills is an essential element in any program intended to increase their autonomy. The metacognitive skills are presented as a list without reference to level of language skills. Like technology skills, learners’ metacognitive abilities are rarely aligned exactly with their language skills levels. The ability to understand and analyze one’s own learning is especially influenced by educational background and previous experience. The area of metacognition presents a special challenge to instructors at the lowest levels, where learners have higher-order thinking skills in place but lack the communication skills to relay them.
As learning in groups is a complex process involving not only linguistic exchanges but also the formation of identities, negotiation of relations, and the influence of the context, it is insufficient to rely heavily on statistical analysis while neglecting to make sense of classroom interaction in the field and in direct conversation with the learners. Therefore, the study investigates the social aspects of group work in an ethnographic framework, especially regarding how students enact their identities while mutually negotiating meaning during interaction and providing different interpretations of
(Vygotsky, 1978 : 86). Within the general cognitive heading, the cognitive developmentalists attribute these effects to processes outlined by scholars such as Piaget (1926) and Vygotsky (1978). Vygotsky’s (1978) work stressed benefits of collaborating with a more expert peer because what a student carries out jointly with another could be incorporated into his or her individual repertoire. Piaget’s work stressed the benefits of cognitive conflicts among students that expose students’ misconceptions and lead to higher-quality understandings. Work from the cognitive elaboration perspectives asserts that learners must engage in some manner of cognitive restructuring of new materials in order to learn them.
1. Explain the meaning of social structure in terms of relationships, patterns, and social formations. There has been a lot of definitions and descriptions of social structure over the years which has led to many disagreements about how social structure can be defined and described. In this essay the concept will be explained using relationships, patterns, and social formations. Durkheim, Marx, and Weber have all suggested that social structure influences an individual’s actions, which suggests that it is a very important topic in sociology (Elder-Vass, 2010:1-8).
There are different societies that differed distinctly from each other and many of these differences persist till today. As cultural diversity is a challenge in teaching learning process, it is not an easy task for a teacher to educate an increasingly diverse student population in school. It becomes the responsibility of the teacher to meet the needs of students from the culturally diverse societies. Teachers need to behave in such a way to overcome these difficulties that they face because of the persistence of cultural diversity. In this paper discussion is made upon the role played by the teacher in culturally diverse society.
Because there is a clear imbalance in the intensification of the forms of the theoretical and experimental knowledge base in the practice of social work and there is also a great confusion about the concept of the knowledge base for social work, and how to apply them to the dilemmas faced by social work. To address this problem or problem, sociologists and researchers are making tremendous efforts that can never be denied. In the following paragraph, I will try to clarify some ideas concerning the rules of knowledge in international social action. The beginning will be to highlight two very important parts of the knowledge bases (theoretical and experimental) and their overlap within the framework of a simple critical look. Knowledge base in social work can generally be divided into three main overlapping sections: Theoretical knowledge, factual knowledge, empirical (experimental) knowledge.
Answers to the research questions 1- What are the roles of leading teachers in implementing formative assessment in Key- Stage One? The study found that there are three key roles of the leading teachers in implementing formative assessment in the school. The first role of the leading teachers is to persuading teachers to use formative assessment effectively in the classroom and applying the best and suitable assessment tool(s) in the lessons. The second role of the leading teachers is to monitor and provide constructive feedback for the teachers on their performance continuously. Leading teachers need to physically present to observe the classroom teaching, students behavior and how teachers perform.
Despite much discourse and research, a central question in preservice teacher education continues to evoke much debate: What do teacher candidates require to become effective teachers? The answer is not simple. The answer is as varied as the countless perspectives that encompass the history of pedagogy. Although there may be no specific answer to this essential question, just as there is no one superior teaching model or one type of student, there is a professional area of knowledge and skill that should permeate all preservice education programs - multicultural education. This field which prepares teachers "for the social, political and economic realities that individuals experience in culturally diverse and complex human encounters" (Sims,
The research methods employed to explore teacher’s perception on the influence of socio-economic status on the phonological awareness of students is examined in this chapter. This chapter begins with an overview of the research design including the research aim, research philosophy and time horizon of the research. Then the specific research methods employed for participant recruitment, instrument development, data collection and data analysis are discussed. This chapter will justify the use of quantitative surveys over qualitative or mixed methods. It will discuss the snowballing method used in this research for data collection and Last, it will discuss the ethical considerations and any issues that occurred throughout the research.
The limitations of a study are those characteristics or methodologies that may affect or influence the interpretation of the findings of the study (Ellis & Levy, 2009, p. 332). The current study explores social justice in the context of service learning in a multicultural counseling class. The themes emerged point toward the processes and outcomes of understanding social justice from a service-learning lens. Despite this case study design being intentional, holistic, and providing rich in-depth information, there were constraints. The first limitation for this study is the size of the population for the study.