As Ghoshal, 2005 says When in totalled from overall perspective, meaning in essence Social Scientists carry greater social and moral responsibility than natural or physical sciences scientists as social sciences deal predominantly with Humans and behaviours. Social Scientists and Theorists can't hide any ideology or Theory as one belong to a different school of thought, hence One can look at the below other important theoretical basis for this article. As per Parsons, Merton, Germain, Gitterman, SYSTEMS THEORY is one which includes ecological systems which How humans interact with their social setting and environment, Humans are in continual transaction with their social setting or social environment, can they shy away from the setting?, Systems are interrelated parts constituting an ordered whole system where in each subsystem impacts all other parts and the whole system. Systems can have closed or open boundaries but finally systems tend towards equilibrium thus maintaining social balance. Quoting Bowen, Satir, Minuchin, Carter and McGoldrick, Family Systems can be defined as the one which focuses on How the family system affects the individual and family functioning across the life-span of any Individual functioning shapes family functioning and family systems can create 'pathology' within the individual boundaries, roles, communication, family structure influence family functioning.
The most outstanding theorist of systems in sociology — Niklas Luman. He has developed sociological approach which unites elements of a structural functionalism of T. Parsons with the general theory of systems and has attracted concepts of biology and cybernetics. Luman considers that the system is always less difficult, than her external environment. Therefore systems develop new subsystems and establish between them various ratios to interact with the environment. Systems have to reduce complexity, otherwise they aren 't capable to function.
One goal of systems thinking (systems dynamic) is to provide tools to transform the perspectives and mental models so that actions lead to real sustainable long-term improvements (Gabriel, 2013). A systemic approach is relevant because many of the various types of shocks that affect households are becoming increasingly covariant, i.e. affecting groups of households even entire communities (Choularton et al., 2015). In situations where the vulnerability of individuals is intensified by their social and economic dependence on others (affected by the same disaster and shocks), system components are particularly
Brief history a. Development of Systems Theory Aristotle’s Holism claims that knowledge originates from the comprehension of the whole instead of the single parts. In terms of their relative dynamics as well as their contents, researchers have been struggling with systems and parts (Mele, Cristina et al). Ludwig Von Bertanlanffy; a biologist, evolved this historic effort during the last century into a system known as “Systems Theory” (Mele, Cristina et al). Systems theory is an interdisciplinary theory about each framework in nature, within communities and in numerous scientific departments and additionally a structure with which we can research phenomena from comprehensive method (Mele, Cristina et al).
Both the theories dismiss the idea of linear process of problem solving. 4. The system theory wasn’t originally developed for social work practice, and was used by the social workers as they were relevant. However, strength based approach has been developed by social worker themselves. b) The strengths and challenges that may be faced are as follow.
In an attempt to understand how science evolves, Thomas Kuhn proposed the idea that in a particular scientific discipline and in a specific time period there exist a leading paradigm. This was in response to the commonly held belief that science evolves in a cumulative manner. In addition, George Ritzer uses Khun’s theory as background in order to make the social world easier to understand. He believed that Sociology is a multiple paradigm science, which embodied three major paradigms. Namely, the social facts, the social definition and the social behaviour paradigms, but he found that these paradigms were too one sided in their approach.
In the mid 1800s, psychology was flourishing. Seemingly each new psychologist would often research mental phenomena with a slightly different perspective. In the 1890s, Edward Titchener brought Wilhelm Wundt’s psychology to the United States of America, establishing what is now known as structuralism. Generally, structuralists believe that everything within conscious experience is merely a combination of mental ingredients, which can be parsed apart via introspection (Hergenhan, 2017). Around the same time, a new school known as functionalism began to develop.
The discipline of social studies is very complex and dynamic. The social studies content requires the educator to have a broad educational background. The subject areas commonly associated with social studies are history, geography, political science, and economics. However, social studies teachers often have to cover other subject areas such as sociology, anthropology, psychology, philosophy, and many others (Martorella, 1997). This diverse subject matter places a social studies teacher in a position where they must be well trained in a variety of disciplines.
Systemic theorists take a position that can be called as relativist. They argue about the goals and frameworks about the strategy-making depending on the social context. This approach seems to be less pessimistic about the 3-2 -capacity of
The findings and observations of the present study reflect a need to apply for “System Theory, along with Positive Youth Development” for the empowerment of youth. According to Anwar (2017), system theory described the complex amalgamation of interacting components with the relationship among them that permit the identification of a boundary maintaining entity or process. Lerner et al (2005) depict positive youth development (PYD), which originated from ecological systems theory, focuses on the strengths of youth. Its central philosophy and theory of PYD propose that, if young people have mutually beneficial relations with the people and institutions of their social world, they will be on the way to a hopeful future marked by positive contributions