Title: Why is care work under-valued and under-rewarded? Key Words: paid and unpaid care work, wage penalties, undervaluation Abstract This literature review draws upon relevant literature on undervaluation and relative wage penalties of work associated with care. By dividing care work into paid and unpaid, the article departs from the fact that most care work is under-valued and under-paid, despite some exceptions. It aims at investigating the reason that causes the current phenomenon, via comparing and inducing different frameworks and theories. The article reveals that the “public good” theory is the major explanation to undervaluation of care work.
Taylor's intent was to go beyond postmodernist arguments, believing that unique identity and difference from a social perspective should also be factors of consideration, alongside structural inequalities within the theoretical elements of social policy. Taylor suggests that there are several problems in the public understanding of the concept of social policy, he believes the concept to be widely misunderstood which in turn aids in the delineation of the necessity for a provisional theory that can distinguish between categorical and ontological identity in social policy. He believes this would assist in improving the understanding of the role of social policy in society and how it contributes to the formation of social
INTRODUCTION In this paper I tried to argue that how growth does not lead to proper reduction of poverty. There are other factors also which helps us to understand poverty broadly. Among the factors I have talked about inequality and its relation with poverty. First part of the paper tries to give an overview of how to measure poverty and define it. It also talks about importance of considering all factors in determining the poverty line.
Welfare reform is generally defined as the government 's attempt to change the welfare policy of the country. The main goal of welfare reform is to lower the number of individuals or families ' that are solely dependent on the government assistance to survive as well as helping those families to become self-sufficient.
The characteristic of “productivist welfare capitalism” is the minimal social rights with extensions linked to productive activity (Wong, 2012, p.278). It means that the government set great store by those programmes which can contribute to economic development, for example, education, healthcare and public rental housing, while they hesitate when making policies like retirement benefits and income redistribution measures. Quite deliberately, the welfare system of Hong Kong does not exist to iron out inequalities. In the government’s mind, it will be best if social welfare policies can also act as an investment for future economic development. The following statement by the former Financial Secretary John Tsang would best summarize the subordinate position and the productivist nature of Hong Kong social welfare policy: “our investment in education, infrastructure and social welfare aims to enhance overall competitiveness and to upgrade the capabilities of our citizens so they can rise to social and economic changes, which will in turn enhance social mobility” (HKG, 2010, para
Many issues lie behind poverty—lack of education, inequality, prejudice, corruption and exploitation. What Is Poverty? Development organizations, aid agencies and governments often define poverty in relation to wealth and income. In the United States, poverty
According to Sen, social exclusion addresses two central issues- one that of epistemology, that is, how to gain a meaningful understanding of the diverse phenomena of deprivation and poverty and the other being policy implications of that understanding to devise ways and means to improve policy making. Hence, Sen discusses the concept of social exclusion by situating it in the broader context of poverty as capability deprivation. Classically, poverty has been seen in terms of paucity of income that determines the standard of living in significant ways. However for Sen, poverty is not so much the shortage of income as it the exclusion of the poor from participation in and access to opportunities and activities which is a major non tangible facet of poverty that also needs to be accounted
Home assignment #3 Educational system reflect social inequalities. And my analysis include sociological conflict theory like a key. And economical factor that affect educational, professional and social progression. Social conflict theory sees social life as a competition and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. Social conflict theory is a macro-oriented paradigm in sociology that views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change.
Prospect of reducing poverty through rights-based approach Introduction Poverty is a complex social problem, difficult to define and harder to evaluate and address as it is a global phenomenon; it exists not only in the South but also in the affluent nations in the North (Lister, 2004: 1). Poverty is described as unmet human needs that limit the living standard in the society (Hartley, 2010: 52) and in 1960 it was one of the top agendas of the World Bank, yet still today it is one of the dire issues. So, how can poverty be tackled? A potential solution could be rights-based approach although it has some shortcomings to it. This essay analyses various perspectives in regards to the poverty reduction from a rights-based approach.
It was early in the morning, and my stomach was acting up. I used to fake and pretend like I wasn’t feeling good so I could stay home. But this time it was real. So I called my mom to ask if it was ok to walk home, she said no. She told me to try to make it to lunch, and that I was probably just hungry.
The American Dream is almost purely run by structural forces, in her perspective, that are constantly attempting to impede the middle class’ ability for upward mobility. Those who are impoverished are there because of their surroundings, the institutions that shape their lives and therefore, they simply cannot find any way out of the poverty trap in which they have found themselves. While Ehrenreich was conducting her case study, she attempted to determine if the American Dream was by attempting to immerse herself in the culture of the poor. She only did so partially due to several stipulations that she set for the experiment as she stated that she would not live in a shelter (Shepard did), that she would not get rid of her vehicle and rely on public transportation (Shepard also did this); however, she did note that even for her, being partially immersed as she was, still found there to be not much difference between herself and those that worked around. She believed, from her experiences, that the social structure of the employment opportunities, was a systematic way to dehumanize the workers.
APiper dropped the paper bag on the granite kitchen counter, balancing her cell between her shoulder and the crook of her neck and continuing her conversation while she began unpacking the numerous bags of groceries. • You have to go with us, Diane - Piper protested into the phone while pushing almond milk into the fridge- Alex won’t enjoy her birthday if you aren’t there. • I’m sure Al with prefer to spend a romantic couple of days with her girlfriend – Diane replied sarcastically with a snort – than having her mother tag along. • We traveled a lot this year. – Piper coaxed – and you know how much Alex hates the cold.
Welfare is different in each person’s situation, such as people using it in different manners. Welfare is a big part of foreshadowing situations that American leans upon. The government shouldn’t provide welfare to all less fortunate Americans; in conclusion, many of those people take advantage of the things the government gives them in the wrong ways. (Jeffery) The unemployment rate
*End Monologue * Mr.Sherwood-Ladies...are we having a problem over here? *Mollie begins to talk but Angie interrupts* Angie-No, Mr. Sherwood Mr.Sherwood-Alright then, quiet down please. Susie-Hey, (Angie) “you alright?” Angie-”Ya I’m alright…” Susie- “Alright, then i 'm just gonna go to my next class, i 'll see you at lunch right. “ *bell rings again and everyone runs to the door(offstage)* *Mollie is still packing her bag and Angie walks around next to her* Angie-”hey…” Mollie-*looks up annoyed and angry * “hey…” Angie-*sighs* “look I’m sorry alright….I shouldn’t have been like that to you I know how it feels...here….” *hands Mollie an invitation* Mollie- “What 's this for?” Angie- “It 's an invitation...were having a bonfire this weekend and I’d like you to come…” Mollie- “Really?” Angie- “mmmhmm think about it...see you tomorrow.” *Angie walks out classroom door* Mollie- “Wait!” *Mollie finishes packing up bag and runs after Angie and again misjudges the weight of the backpack again and falls down* *Que monologue* Mollie-”See, I am a freshman...and although it seems like things were gonna be rough” * looks out classroom door* “they might just get a little