Introduction With the social development, tourism has become the most powerful and biggest industry. As the concept of sustainable tourism is getting popular but has not yet formed into a unified concept of sustainable tourism. It is aimed to achieve the requirements of the sustainable development of tourism should be natural, social, cultural and ecological coordination with the environment. The negative impacts of tourism, including deforestation, pollution, indigenous culture loss, and habitat and biodiversity loss. Sustainable tourism requires the establishment of a suitable balance between the environmental, social and economic, to guarantee a long-term sustainability of tourism development.
It appears to be a tool used internationally to boost the economy, particularly in developing countries. Tourism can massively degrade the sociocultural and environmental aspects of the tourism destination through mass tourism as cited in (Kim, 2002). Due to the decline in the quality of tourism destinations caused by mass tourism, an alternative type of tourism emerged in the 1980s that sought to balance out the triple bottom line of sustainable development which includes the social, the economic and the environmental pillars (Aall,
According to the research, it has shown that tourism industry in Malaysia is important in economic and social development. Tourism industry is important in culture exchange which helps the combining of cultures and creates a better understanding among people from different regions and countries. It also important to promote Malaysia to the worlds and attract more foreign tourists travel in Malaysia. Increment of foreign tourism travel in Malaysia will increase the nation income, increase the job opportunities and help other industries to grow together. Tourism industry is also important to increase GDP.
But it is being noted that considering the sustainability of the communities, the travel sector has to be sustainable, with minimal impact on the climate. Global climate change has huge consequences, the same tourism sector that benefited the locals can suffer a blow if auto-mobility is not controlled and maintained at sustainable levels. The local tourism sector is an asset to the local economy which in turn effectively contributes to the financial and economic exposure of the international tourism. International tourism is closely related to the roles of local and regional economy. If the local economy sees a notable growth, then it is obvious that the whole international tourism sector will benefit from it.
Tourism Impacts Tourism is an activity that can cause may impacts in one destination, according United Nations Environment Program (UNEP, 2015) the tourism impacts are divided in three types: economics, environmental and sociocultural impacts. 1) Economic Impacts: The economic impacts that tourism generates can be positive or negative. The positive impacts are that it creates jobs, appears new economic activities and companies, increasing demand of local products, higher infrastructures development, increase state benefits and it contributes to the development of the local economies. The negative impacts are that the jobs are seasonal jobs with a low salary, inflation increases caused for the tourists that has a higher acquisitive level than the local people, rising price of land and housing, the economy depends overmuch on tourism and the tourism benefits falls into the foreigner companies. Tourism development can cost the local government and local taxpayers a huge amount of money.
Tourism has now become a significant contributor to our economic prosperity by its contribution to Malaysia Gross Domestic Profit (GDP). It plays important roles in the socio-economic development of our country. The Ministry of Tourism and Culture has actively promoted both domestic and international tourism. The rising significance of tourism industry in terms of its arrivals and receipts has encouraged the government to take several steps time to time for the development of tourism industry. Many national tourism policies are drafted and actions plans are adopted in this regard.
To achieve sustainable economic growth Sri Lankan Government has already recognized “Tourism” as a priority sector. Nevertheless, mass tourism has its own negative effects such as environmental and socio-cultural degradation. Various forms of alternative or sustainable tourism such includes, ‘nature-based tourism’, ‘ecotourism’ and ‘cultural tourism’. As an outcome of increased global awareness on environmental issues, tourists are increasingly becoming environmentally oriented. In this background, ecotourism can be and alternative form of tourism that promises to minimize negative impacts of mass tourism while providing sustainable income to communities.
Since tourists request destination information and its recommendation information simultaneously for traveling to a certain destination, in order to learn about it and reduce uncertainty (Bickart and Schindler, 2001), online travel reviews playing these two roles can completely meet tourists’ information needs. The impact of e-WOM in the tourism industry is especially strong. Intangibles such as tourism services cannot be evaluated before the consumption experience; therefore, purchasing intangible products and services brings a higher risk, so customers are more dependent on the interpersonal influence of eWOM (Lewis and Chambers,
In addition to the, there are informal accommodation places also available for guests in private houses as well as bungalows (Bastakis et al, 2004). The tourism industry in Sri Lanka has greatly contributed to the economy of Sri Lanka by making generating employment for people in Sri Lanka and earning of foreign exchange. Further, the tourism industry has been able to contribute to the other industries such as banking, medical and pharmaceutical, communication and media industry etc. as it has direct interconnections on receiving and delivering goods and services to these sectors (Wickramasinghe and Takano, 2010). In addition, there is a significant improvement can be seen in the domestic tourism in Sri Lanka (Hall, 2012).
However, according to the thriving of tourism, it has been negotiated by scholars whether tourism is bad or good. Because the impacts of tourism have generated both positive and negative outcomes to the destination. It can be said that tourism generates the growth in economics and improves the living of the local by providing facilities and infrastructure. On the other hand, some people argue that tourism has negatively generated socio-cultural impacts and caused several environmental problems. In my point of view, everything has its pros and cons; there is nothing in this world has only a positive side, there is always the drawbacks in contrast with its benefits, and so does tourism.