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Sociodemographic Factors

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Sociodemographic. Sociodemographic factors are defined as a “variety of socioeconomic (e.g. income, education, occupation) and demographic factors (e.g. age, race, ethnicity, primary language)” (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Institute of Medicine and Board on Health Care Services, Board on Health Care Services, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice and Committee on Accounting for Socioeconomic Status in Medicare Payment Programs, 2016 p. 3).
Sociodemographic Characteristics and Student Behavior
Sociodemographics are indispensable factors to consider in the study of problem behaviors. Naik and Jogdand (2013) had identified several sociodemographic variables
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Askeland, Haugland, Stormark, Bøe and Hysing (2015), stated that probability of moderate and high levels of nonattendance were evident among girls, adolescents of low socioeconomic status, and those who were living alone or with peers. Moreover, recurring absences were apparent to adolescents with less educated mothers and those who are not living with their own family. Quite the opposite, Muula, Rudatsikira, Babaniyi, Songolo and Siziya (2012) who examined the prevalence and associated factors of truancy among grades 7-10 pupils, contrarily asserted that males more than females educed truancy. The results of their study also revealed that truancy was likely exhibited by older pupils as compared with those whose age were less than 14, and by pupils who shared negative feelings towards peers. Parental supervision was believed to be highly associated with truancy, however, association between grade level and truancy were found incoherent. In another study, Vaughn, Maynard, Salas-Wright, Perron and Abdon, (2013) proved that absentee adolescents were older, has lower school engagement and less parental involvement. It was also established that truancy was significantly correlated with poverty status and single-parenthood. Furthermore, Yoep, Tupang, Jai, Kuay, Paiwai, and Nor (2016), likewise observed that students aged 13 years were less likely to be truant as compared with older ones and that adolescents who had parents living together were less truant as those with single-parents. This findings was also seen on other studies on truancy (Muula et al., 2012; Askeland et al., 2015). Contrarily, prevalence of attendance problem was revealed significantly higher among males than females. Father and mother attachments, gender and ethnicity showed no significant relation with absentee behavior. However, the work of Maynard, Vaughn, Nelson, Salas-Wright, Heyne, and Kremer (2017)
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