For example, the highest socioeconomic (SES) blacks which had an income that was greater than 50,000 dollars were more segregated than the poorest Latinos and Asians with an income of less than 15,000 dollars. Eating healthy and exercising regularly is difficult for individuals in segregated areas because they lack recreational facilities and exercising outside is dangerous due to safety reasons. Healthy food is expensive compared to junk food or fast food which is relatively cheap so those on a low-income budget will choose the cheapest food available which can cause obesity and
Health inequalities are preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups. People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged. Health inequalities are not only apparent between people of different socio-economic groups – they exist between different genders and different ethnic groups (“Health inequalities,” n.d.).
1. Even with our medical advances, the United States ranks 29th because of lack of health care for some individuals but also the lifestyle Americans have. Another reason is that class statuses correspond with our health outcomes. What I meant about this, is that lower and middle class individuals are exposed to more health threats than higher class. This is the connections between healthy bodies and healthy bank accounts and race/ethnicity.
The society we live in today has developed drastically, this development has ranged and branched out to a variety of fields, one field that has seen tremendous advancement would be the medical field. Medicine has been documented to be around for 2500 years and has been potent in the lasting of the human race. One major factor that has persisted for a long period of time and has claimed many would be Heart failure; the heart is a complex organ that strives to pump blood through your body through the use of blood vessels such as arteries, capillaries and veins these vessels carry blood throughout your body. Your heart is vital to your health due to the fact that without the heart’s pumping action, blood would not be able to move through your
Some reasoning behind this provided by the text states that this gap might come from blacks being disproportionately poor in the US in which being poor causes added stress. It is also pointed out that upper class African Americans can also have higher rates of hypertension
Health inequalities are a result of unequal exposure to risk factors associated with socio-economic inequalities, such as social, economic and environmental conditions (Thomson, Bambra, McNamara, Huijts, & Todd, 2016). These inequalities in health, between people belonging to different socio-economic groups, were firstly recognized in the Nineteenth century, when public health figures in different European countries dedicated their studies to these issues (Mackenbach, 2006). Villermé (1782-1863), conducted a study in Paris, and showed districts with lower socio-economic statuses had higher mortality rates compared to neighborhoods with a higher socio-economic status, and came to the conclusion that life and death are related to social circumstances
Before we look at the different Social/Psychological Determinants of Health it is important firstly to define what a social determinant of health is. According to the World Health Organization (2017) “The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age.” These conditions are as a result of a wide range of factors that are ultimately governed by the way in which money, power and specific resources are shared at different levels including those at global, national and local levels. We have all been a part of and will experience different social determinants of health throughout our lives but it is the standard at which we experience these determinants that will ultimately lead onto them affecting our health or ultimately leaving us unaffected. The Social Determinants of Health which I am going to examine include • Education • Unemployment • Stress • Living Conditions • Cultural Norms.
Living in underprivileged neighborhoods creates a lot of stress on community members that predispose them to contracting diseases. Epidemiologist, Ana Diez-Roux, states that people living in disadvantaged neighborhoods have a 50% to 80% increased risk of developing heart disease. An improvement of health policies is required to for disadvantaged neighborhoods to
Introduction Primary care is said to be the “first point of contact” for people when accessing the health care system in Ireland (Department of health and children 2001). The World health organisation(1978) outline that one of the main roles of primary health care is to provide access to care for the most vulnerable but also to identify and rectify the factors which lead to their early mortality. The Alma Ata declaration (1978) was a huge milestone in the development of primary care and they explain how essential it is for all populations’ health. Unfortunately the vulnerable populations in Ireland suffer the effects of the social determinates and also the health inequalities and die younger because they put up with a healthcare system which “places lesser value on the lives of those with lesser means” (Wren 2002).
CONCLUSION Social determinants of health are the living conditions of people that affect their health. These factors may be environment, education, housing, income and others which affect the basic functions, health and well-being. Among all the economic, social and physical factors that are referred to as SDOH, the factors of housing, income and environment are considered to have major impact in affecting the health of people since they are the fundamental requirements for any human being. Housing and environment affects heart and respiratory functions where income levels are reason for infant and maternal
Several factors such as gender, age, social class, race, and where the person lives can cause one to inhibit a health disparity, lessening his or her chances of obtaining good health. 2. Which racial/ethnic groups are more likely to be affected by health disparities? Why?
Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Healthy People (2015), these factors underlie preventable disparities in health status and disease outcomes. Poor health outcomes are often the result of the interaction between individuals and their social and physical environment. Policies that result in changes to the social and physical environment can affect entire populations over extended periods of time, while simultaneously helping people to change individual-level behavior. Improving the conditions in which people are born, live, work, and age will ensure a healthier population, thereby improving national productivity, security, and prosperity through a healthier nation. The importance of social determinants of health is growing initiatives to address these determinants of health.
The hierarchy is divided into categories of upper, middle and lower class. These categories can be sub-divided into more groups, for example lower- middle class, etc. An individual’s socioeconomic status can depend on many different combinations of income, education, rank, race and ethnicity, and more. Everything related to socioeconomic status can be strongly related to an individual’s health and there have been many studies comparing these two.
1. What does the term health disparities mean? Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged populations. Populations can be defined by factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, education, or income, disability, geographic location orientation.
The impact that residential segregation and health disparities among African Americans have is minorities become sicker and die more often because they lack medical insurance or have unhealthy lifestyles. Minorities receive unequal treatment from the medical system, regardless of economic status and insurance coverage. These researchers say segregation’s negative impact on health is true particularly for African-Americans, who studies consistently show are most likely to live apart from other racial-ethnic groups. Blacks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have the highest overall death rate in the country. The rate of high blood pressure among African-Americans is highest not just in the nation, but also in the world, the American Heart Association reports, as is the percentage of black men who contract prostate