The three major dimensions of Horizontal Inequality are, as discussed before, Economic, Social, Political. Economic HI would include inequalities regarding distribution of economic resources and inequalities in terms of income. Another aspect of Economic HI is imbalance of employment opportunities. The social dimension of HI would include various social outcomes such as life expectancy, infant and child mortality, educational attainment and access to various services such as Health services, formal education, water supply, sanitation, housing etc. Political HI can be defined in terms of the group members’ political participation in electoral as well as non-electoral politics.
One main point of the structural functionalism theory is that the erection of a family directly impacts their likelihood of living in poverty. According to Macionis et al stated that the structural-functionalist perspective, poverty, and economic inequality serve several positive functions for society (Macionis et al 2015). Davis and Moore (1945) argued that because the various occupational roles in society require various levels of ability, expertise, and knowledge, an unequal economic reward system helps to assure that the person who performs a role is the most qualified. Argued Davis and Moore thesis states that social stratification is universal because of its functional consequences. in caste system, people are rewarded for performing the duties of their position of birth, in class systems, unequal rewards attract the ablest people to
The article I found the most interesting and presented a great use of Toulmin argument is Prevalence and Trends of Sever Obesity Among US Children and Adolescents. While not stated in the title the article presents three arguments. One, that the old measure for identifying obesity among children is outdated and inaccurate, Second, that with the new information that obesity among children has increased over the years. Third, that catching sever obesity early is key to catching “cardiovascular risk factors and higher levels of adiposity”. The actual claim was difficult for me to distinguish, First, I considered the objective to contain the claim.
The poorer segments of the population are the worst affected by the obesity epidemic in richer societies. A number of studies conducted recently lend additional credence to this conclusion. These studies, for instance, find that in countries such as the United States of America, United Kingdom Spain, Sweden, and Canada, there is a clear inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity (Zhang and Wang, 2004; El Sayed et al, 2012; Ventosa and Urbanos-Garrido, 2016; Rodriguez-Caro et al, 2016; Hajizadeh et al, 2013). The magnitude and direction of the socioeconomic gradient, however, varies within population sub-groups. Zhang and Wang (2004) assess socioeconomic disparities in overweight and obesity in the United States of America, stratifying the study population by gender, age and ethnicity, and discover substantial heterogeneity in the socioeconomic disparities in overweight and obesity across the strata.
Meanwhile, the low income inequality cushioned the adverse effects of structural racism, which is not associated with the birth of SGA in more equitable state (however, racial differences in risk were slightly higher SGA oil in these areas). Our results are consistent with previous work that demonstrates the harmful effects of income inequality in birth weight and infant reproductive health particular. Income inequality can have a negative impact on health by creating differences in access to opportunities and material goods that lack of investment in social infrastructure in highly unequal communities so that the socioeconomically disadvantaged members of the population are less able to prevent and treat disease. These conditions, in turn may result in financing policies that dictate state investments in areas such as education and health and to establish the framework of opportunities available to state residents. In this context, combined with the specific effects of systemic racial disadvantage (including limited employment and access to education and systematic incarceration among black), can be one of the mechanisms by which state-level structural racism and inequality income affect
global obesity also referred to as “globesity” is nearly three times higher than 1975 statistics and malnutrition affects 12.9% people worldwide (WHO,2017). Defects of current global good systems are leading to human health burdens, society`s economic and environmental costs. Therefore, examining intensification of global overweight and, this report will explore the relationship between globalisation and commercial, economic, political, and social/cultural determinants of health in shaping food systems. Furthermore, the report will also discuss the manifestation and the globesity risks on public health, society and potentially environment (consumerism) along with evaluating global action and strategic responses addressing obesity
Manufacturing elites begin to emerge. Manufacturing elites are the one that wealth is depending on production. They have the ideas and skills that are marketable and employable. The discourse of democratic thought will circulate on the key factors or components of democracy: equality, liberty, freedom and law. Modern Thinkers give contrasting views on the scope and intent of each.
Another component of class in Huxley’s time and in the book is the interpretation of class introduced by Max Weber stating that class, status and party all contribute to your social class. “One can have strength in one, two, all three, or none of these categories.” ( New World Encyclopedia ). For example, someone with money but a not respected profession is viewed as lower in the hierarchy of classes. Huxley realized components of class in Britain and evaluated them in Brave New
Socioeconomic status is a measurement of a person’s occupation, income and education levels. In most cases, socioeconomic status is perceived as social standing or financial class of an individual. Additionally, it is mostly based on power, influence and control that an individual has over others. Socioeconomic status is a fundamental variable utilized in discerning inequalities particularly in accessing and distributing public resources. Social standing is applicable in a wide range of realms such as behavioral factors as well as social sciences.
They found that the difference in socioeconomic status (SES), as assessed by income or educational achievement, are associated with large disparities in health status(1). In western European countries and in the U.S, the association between SES and health follows a common pattern(2-4). The lower individuals are with respect to SES, the poorer their state of health. Similar results have been obtained in different countries, irrespective of cultural background or economic growth(5). In addition, while most researchers understand they must control for the effects of SES when analyzing health outcomes, many different regard different measures of SES as interchangeable.