Factors Affecting Macroinvertebrate Diversity and Occurrence There are ecological factors regulating the distribution of macroinvertebrates (Hussain, Q.A). Water current, temperature, substrate, drainage basin land use/land cover, vegetation, pH of water, drought, flood, food, shade and stream geomorphology. Water current shows difference among aquatic animals according to its characteristics, either flowing water or a still water (Hussein). According to Steinnman, anatomical features of aquatic animals are influenced from their habitat due to adaptation (Hussein). Temperature is also an important ecological factor.
Note that most anthropological observations are done through experience and ethnology. This throws the profession into turmoil and casts a doubt in upcoming intellectuals as what kind of profession they are in and what is it classified as. However this debate is more centralized around methodology rather the context of the debate which is to what extent is anthropology a science. Exploiting the methodological side of anthropology as to how anthropologists reach their findings does not mean that anthropology should not be acknowledged as a science, rather it should be used to give much credit to this exceptional form of
This concept of the Island biogeography theory describes how the number of species on an island , increases as the island size increases (Pâslaru, 2014). Another concept of the Island Biogeography Theory is the species – isolation relationship. This describes how the number of species decreases as the distance between the island and the source increases. The distances from the source have an influence on the movement of species to the island (Pâslaru, 2014). The Island Biogeography Theory takes into consideration the immigration and extinction rate of species.
Much of this paradigm dates back to the work of social work theoretician and practitioner William Gordon. Gordon was instrumental in conceptualizing the framework that the understanding and practice social work involved not only internal matters of the respective minds and environments but of their interactions and relationships as well (Heinonen & Spearman, 2001). The ‘ecosystems framework’ is complemented by concepts supported in ‘systems theory’ and ‘ecology’. ‘Systems theory’ stresses the effects of interacting elements where multiple elements are themselves whole, interact and combine to form a whole, and have relationships with other wholes (Heinonen & Spearman, 2001). An open, interactive, system may receive nourishment and sustainability from within itself and from its relationships with others (Heinenon & Spearman, 2001).
They contain rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins; they contain structure-flagellated sperm, and form phragmoplast (Reece et al. p.614). Plants have five specific traits that are only found in land plants and not in the charophyte. There are some key traits that only belong to plants such as; alternations of generation, multicellular, dependent embryos, walled spores produced in sporangia, multicellular gametagia, and apical meristems (Reece et. al 2014).
This made it possible for it to lack structural and institutional support required. However, the massive increment in the elderly population in the post-industrial western nations made Gerontology to become most rapidly growing field of study. Branches of Gerontology The below mentioned are the branches of gerontology, which are embedded in its scope dealt above. Bio-gerontology: This is a sub-field of gerontology that studies the biological process of ageing. It is composed of the interdisciplinary research on biological ageing, causes, effects and mechanisms in order to better understand human senescence.
Summary We are living in a century of revolution and great advancements in many fields of biology. These advancements and discoveries are for improving accuracy in different traditional methods or approaches. However, in the field of taxonomy, the problem regarding species concept has never been solved since early 1700s and some biologists still thinks this is impossible. Due to different views, beliefs and descriptions amongst biologists, many species concepts has been proposed, each with it is merits and limitations but there is no single accepted definition of a species. Morphological species concept is the traditional concept that has been used to identify and classify species accordingly.
The development of methods to access forest canopy and technological advancement: mountain fogging techniques, and construction equipment to facilitate access (Erwin 1982; Moffett and Lowman 1995); easy-to-use equipment for making whole canopy measurements of material and energy exchanges with the atmosphere (Baldocchi et al. 1988), and methods to measure the structure of whole canopies (e.g., LIDAR, Gonzalez et al. 2010), rapidly influenced the growth of canopy studies. The growing knowledge on forest canopy gives us deeper understanding on biodiversity in canopies, relationship between forest canopy structure and function, exchange of matter and energy with the atmosphere, and control of forests over climate (e.g., Bonan 2008). Canopy Invertebrates Invertebrates are a diverse group of canopy fauna which are commonly used as bio-indicators to evaluate the health
(2007), the forest provides a wide range of variation in bird's habitat and even to bird species diversity. The significant sources of this variation include canopy tree species and forest vegetation structure (DeGraaf & Yamasaki, 2003). Species richness was preferred by more developed forest stages and by tree species diversity, but very dense, closed forest canopies (>70%) decreased species richness. However, the species richness and diversity can be influenced by the forest canopies closure. The coniferous canopy closure has a negative influence on specialist species, where else generalist species prefers varied canopy closure.