He has divided justice into two parts, particular justice and general justice. The former states that a just society helps a human to perform righteously and live the good life, whereas, the latter states justice is nothing but giving people according to what they actually
What kind of Justice is Superior? Justice is the most important political value and applies to the institution of society. Institutions regulate the market, property, family, freedom etc. It defines the just behavior or treatment of the people. There are multiple opinions of what justice concludes of, but for now I will only focus on the two.
1. Introduction Justice means giving each person what he or she deserves or, in more traditional terms, giving each person his or her due. Justice and fairness are closely related terms that are often today used interchangeably (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks, S.J., & Mayer, 2014). Likewise, distributive justice concerns the fair, just or equitable distribution of benefits and burdens. This is an essay about distributive justice also known as fair distribution of social goods.
From following both of these we arrive at an imperative and it is categorical. Kant also discussed the importance of perfect and imperfect duties in relation to good morality between humans. He suggested that although we have ‘moral leeway’ in how or when we perform imperfect duties, we must ensure that we always succeed in carrying out perfect duties: ‘they must be done’ as negative duties are ‘more stringent’ than positive duties
(Scruton, 2001, p.80) People have free will to subject themselves to objective, ethical, moral law. Kant developed his concept of autonomy in which rational individuals able to overcome heteronomous factors, especially include one’s own desire and interest. These elements may trigger conflict with reason and rationality of oneself. (Scruton, 2001, p.80) In this case, reason become a essential factor to how people act morally. Reason has the ability to govern freedom, and therefore it also determines behaviors.
For Hobbes, the just act is one that does not involve the contravention of a covenant. Hobbes 's notion of morality is that laws of nature.It can be said that social contract is morally required because it promotes our preservation and conducive to peace. According to David Gauthier,the first dogma that hobbes accepts is utility.Utility is a measure of individual preferences where Hobbes call them desires or appetites.Gauthier 's
The extent of fairness in this method is however, rather questionable and the same can be said for Rawls’s overall understanding of fairness, especially when looking at practicalities, because Rawls’s theory is highly idealistic and his methodology allegedly universal. In this essay I will therefore take a political realist approach and critically assess the question whether Rawls’s connection between justice and fairness is applicable in practice and whether making this connection can be justified. I will argue that justice is a practical concept for which it is important that current societal factors are considered and in doing so I will first look at the practical aspects in applying Rawls’s theory and conclude that his association of justice cannot be justified when looking at the concept of fairness applied in a practical
He distinguished between natural justice (the form) and conventional justice (human laws – the matter). Natural justice is universal and unchanging (the Form) while conventional justice is based on convention or agreement and can be changed (the matter). According to him there are two kinds of conventional justice, namely distributive and corrective justice. Distributive justice means that those who are equal should be treated equally and those who are not equal should be treated unequally. This is the kind of justice that is used when distributing wealth, honor and other assets of the community.
Equality of Welfare has different opposed concepts, the Success theory and the Conscious state theory. The success theory states that a person’s welfare is a matter of their success in fulfilling his preferences, goals and ambitions and the conscious state theory states that a person’s welfare is a matter of some aspects or quality of their conscious life. (Graham; Philosophy of Equality, Sociology and Economics) Another modern philosopher John Rawls wrote A Theory of Justice in 1971 putting forward his ideas on equality. Rawls principals of equality are called Fair Equality of Opportunity. Rawls believed that equality should work like this: Institutions should be arranged so that any two persons with the same native talent and the same ambition should have the same prospects of success in the competition for positions of advantage.
I think that this is plausible and effective because, as Kant argued, if this standard was universalized - in other words, if everyone worked to contribute to their own, and to each other’s happiness and wellbeing - we can potentially actualize the virtues of harmonious and respectful coexistence. In relation to the Formula of Humanity, this example articulates the importance of respecting others’ ends as we would respect our own, and the treating of others as ends in of themselves and not as mere means or instruments to our own