The concept of hegemonic masculinity has also been related to ambition, strength and self reliance amongst men which is not encouraged amongst women. Hegemonic masculinity also tries to promote a certain kind of body regime for men which endorse highly muscled and tough bodies (Buchbinder, 2012). There are other scholars who have tried to unpack the concept of hegemonic masculinity. Kimmel & Amy (2008) view hegemonic masculinity as a collective of some specific characteristics possessed by a man. The one who does not have it is considered unworthy or inferior.
The concept of hegemonic masculinity, which was developed by the Australian sociologist Raewyn Connell in the 1990s, has undergone fundamental transformations during the last decades. When the word was coined, it was used to refer to the specific type of masculinity that subordinated other masculinities and femininities. In other words, “hegemonic masculinity was understood as the pattern of practice (i.e., things done, not just a set of role expectations or an identity) that allowed men’s dominance over women to continue” (Connell 832). Hegemonic masculinity was supposed to provide men with models of masculine conduct and guidelines so that they could behave properly and therefore be admired by nonhegemonic men and women. Hegemonic masculinity, consequently, was very oppressive, since men were subjected to
From the social and cultural expectations for a man and the manner and degree to which he acknowledges and lives up to them we derive the concept of masculinity; those applicable to a woman, together with her compliance with them, we think of as femininity. While masculinity and femininity are often assumed to be natural results of being male or female, there is no necessary connection between the morphology of sex (male or female) and the combination of behaviour and attitude that is defined as gender (masculinity or femininity). Masculinity and femininity are thus cultural products, though society ensures through a number of measures that its members believe in and subscribe to a natural connection between sex and gender in order to stabilize the binary system. The consequence is a naturalization of these expectations for typical masculine and feminine behaviour; they appear to us as natural and universally true, even though, as I have already pointed out, this is not the
Hegemonic masculinity usually consists of practices and attitudes which maintain heterosexual male domination over and the subordination of women (Weitzer and Kubrin 5). It represents a cultural idealized form of breadwinning and manhood and can be a personal as well as a collective undertaking. Moreover, hegemonic masculinity is “exclusive, anxiety-provoking, internally and hierarchically differentiated, brutal, and violent. It is pseudo-natural, tough, contradictory, crisis- prone, rich, and socially sustained” (Donaldson 645). Based on male dominance, it resembles “an economic and cultural force, and [is] dependent on social arrangements.” (645).
Yet, these traits can vary by location and are influenced by social and cultural factors. This leads to an overemphasis on the masculinity and the power they have, also perhaps having a disregard for consequences and responsibility that they may have from this machismo. In society, today, people are labelling each other and assumptions are made about genders and is part of socialization to meet the norms of the society. In this essay, I will
Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Traditional Masculinity While there have been a lot of studies about feminism, masculinity as a field of study is relatively new. It was only during 1995, when R.W. Connell published her influential book entitled Masculinities that a solid theory of masculinity was established. Connell contended that there was no single and universal masculinity, but instead there were different types of masculinities. Out of the four types of masculinities that Connell put forth, the most dominant and most culturally valued form of masculinity in a society is what we call hegemonic masculinity.
Constructing masculinities Masculinities are the patterns of social practice associated with the position of men in any society’s set of gender relations (Connell, 2005). Masculinity is not genetic trait that men are born with , rather it is acculturated, composed of social norms of behaviour, which they learn to reproduce in culturally appropriate ways (Beynon, 2002). Connell, (2005) defines masculinities as the pattern or configuration of social practices linked to the position of men in the gender order, and socially distinguished from practices linked to the position of women. Configuration of practice in everyday life is substantially a social construction. When concepts of masculinity are addressed by society at a macro level, the focus is on particular traits or characteristics of how males are to act,
To profess their heterosexual identity, boys enact the ritual of performative sex talk. With a profusion of sexual bravado, boys fight to one-up each other in their stories of sexual prominence and prosperity. Pascoe states that “expressing heterosexual desire establishes a sort of baseline masculinity” (87), in part to distance themselves from the feminine identity of a “fag,” but also to establish masculine dominance. These discussions center around how these boys are able to enact their subjectivity and control on the world around them, with women as the objects of their control and puppets of their desires. Furthermore, the masculine dominance is established through compulsive heterosexuality when boys engage in specific patterns of opposite-sex touching.
Metrosexuality challenges this by society becoming more accepting and open to new ideas and change. Men who were once depicted as masculine are more than ever able to express themselves rather than hide in fear of society 's judgement. Overall the more masculinity is challenged the easier it will be for society to begin to diminish the use of gender stereotypes in the future. Additionally, modern day man consecutively aids towards the depreciation of the male gender stereotypes by challenging them against female stereotypes. This means that the modern day man will participate in what society would associate as a ‘woman 's job’ like staying at home to care for family.