The sociological perspective is the study of human life and social interactions, it also studies how those interactions mould groups and society as a whole. A sociological perspective goes past the manifest and challenge what is accepted as common-sense. Since sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels, they come up with different perspectives to understand social life, social change and the social causes and consequences of human behaviour, each uniquely viewing society in their own way. In this paper we are going to look at the main sociological perspectives. Functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability .
These perspectives hold very different and specific characteristics that make them all appropriate to understanding sociology (Cury, Jiobu, and Schwirian 12). The functionalist perspective says that society and its systems work together to maintain stability. This perspective heavily relies on the belief that each part of society affects another. Functionalists believe that “social mechanisms hold society together” (Cury, Jiobu, and Schwirian 12). They focus heavily on how different institutions affect social life.
In other words, the meaning of the symbols is developed through human interaction and communication. As a result of this, human interaction is a vital part of society and reality. For instance, by communicating and using language these symbols and their meanings go through an interpretive process in which reality is constructed. Symbolic interaction also states that individuals develop self-concepts through the interaction with others. Self-concepts are an individual 's perception of their own actions, potential, and distinctive characteristics.
The social concept also social construction of reality (Social constructionism) is considered a theory of knowledge in sociology which evaluates the advancement of mutually created understandings of the world which is a basis for the formation of collective assumptions on reality. The theory affirms the opinion that people rationalize their experience through creating models of their social world and later sharing such models via language. Dating from the work of Berger and Luckmann (1966) different authors have put forth their contribution and ideas on social constructionizm. Berger and Luckmann dispute that all knowledge is gained and maintained from social interactions. Apparently according to the two authors people interact bearing in mind
Emile Durkheim was a famous french philosopher, often referred to as the father of sociology.He came up with one of the three major sociology perspectives. Karl Marx was called the father of social conflict. There are three different major types of sociological perspectives; they are functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interactionism. Symbolic interactionism focuses on relationship among individuals within a society. Functionalism is a theory that states all aspect of a society serve a function.
Structuralism is worried with the general structure of society and the way social establishments go about as a limitation or breaking point and control singular conduct. Structuralism offers a perspective of the individual being controlled by the society they live in; Marx and Durkheim are comparative in that they can both be depicted as structuralisms, and however their individual thoughts are to some degree distinctive. Functionalism, the structural agreement sociological theory is a key theory that was produced by Emile Durkheim, one of the establishing fathers of sociology. This theory considers society to be a user structure of between related social foundations, for example, schools and the lawful framework that is in consistent agreement. Functionalists trust
This is due to group solidarity in human societies is normally purchased at the hostility price about outsiders by group members (Eriksson, 2011). Fukuyama (2001), explained that this does not prohibit social capital as a type of capital on the grounds that physical capital can take the type of assault rises or tasteless entertainment whereas human capital can be implemented to devise new approaches of torturing individuals. Furthermore, he explained that since there are laws in communities to stop the production of various social ‘bads’, it can be considered that most legal implementation of social capital are no less ‘goods’ than the other types of capital insofar as they support individuals get their targets (Fukuyama
Theoretically, functional analysis and the conflict theory share similarities because they both comprehend society's at a larger viewpoint and both group individuals together by class or either symbols. Rather than this functionalist approach beginning with the individual, the functionalist analysis of deviance begins with society as a whole. The functionalist perspective believes deviance serves two primary roles in creating social stability for a society. The first primary goal is systems of recognizing and punishing deviance create norms and tell members of a given society how to properly behave by laying out the guidelines of what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Mainly, everyone must be aware of what behaviors are considered deviant in order to avoid an unsettling society.
Sociology has three major sociological perspectives. Perspective is just the way of looking at the world. A theory is an arrangement of interrelated recommendations or standards intended to answer an inquiry or clarify a specific wonder. . (Ritzer and Stepnisky, n.d.) It gives us a point of view.
He was focous on individual and culture he also focus on individual and their action. Methodology Weber was concerned with the question of objectivity and subjectivity.  Weber distinguished social action from social behavior, noting that social action must be understood through how individuals subjectively relate to one another. Study of social action through interpretive (Verstehen) must be based upon understanding the subjective meaning and purpose that individuals attach to their actions. Social actions may have easily identifiable and objective means, but much more subjective ends and the understanding of those ends by a scientist is subject to yet another layer of subjective understanding (that of the scientist).He was basically influenced on social research and social theory .