In qualitative research, the researcher interprets the data by developing a description, analyzing data and finally drawing conclusions about its meaning theoretically. The characteristics of qualitative research (Rossman and Rallis, 1998) cited in Creswell are: 1) Qualitative research usually done in the field. Meaning that the researcher should go to the field of the research object in order to collect the primary data. In this case, researcher will be able to know and understand deeply about the research object and gain better experience and got more detail data. 2) Qualitative research uses data collective which involve the participant actively and sensitively in the study.
These kinds of researches are used to gain in-depth knowledge in a study. More specifically the research employed an ethnographic research design in collecting data. Creswell (2000) describe ethnographic designs are qualitative research procedures for describing, analysing, an interpreting a culture-sharing groups shared patterns of behaviour, beliefs, and language that develop over time. Teacher’s views were obtained through face to face interviews with semi-structured questions. The interviewer wants to understand what the interviewee means by stating his/her understanding of transformational leadership in his/her own words.
24). According to Yin (2011, p. 307) a case study is: “A study of a particular case or set of cases, describing or explaining the events of the case(s) […]. A case study may rely on quantitative or qualitative data (or both) but usually involves some field-based data.” An important distinction within the case study methodology is to be made depending on the scope of it. The first type of case study focuses on teaching purposes and is therefore primarily used for the illustration of existing theories and concepts. The second type is the research case study.
Interview is a technique that is used by a researcher in collecting data by having dialogue with the participant. The interviews were used to support the data collected from the document analysis (teacher’s lesson plans and observation). Interviewing provided the researcher a means of gaining a deeper understanding on how the participants see and interpret a phenomenon that cannot be gained through observation (Gay et al., 2009). Moreover, Yin (2014) states the interview can provide the explanations of someone’s attitudes, perception, interests, feelings, concerns, and values of something or a case. Therefore, the interview was conducted to get more information related to the research questions as clearly as possible.
An effective teaching case study should contain background information about the issue, analysis of that identified issue, hint to identify problem, exhibit materials to analyse the issues, set of questions to fix the problem and apply various management theories while suggesting optimum decisions to solve the problems. 3 Research case study is usually developed by P.G. or research course students Teaching case is usually developed by teachers to add experiential learning feature to classroom teaching/learning. 4 A company analysis case study should contain the company name as central with or without identified issue as the case name. A teaching case should contain the issue/problem as central along with or without the name of the
Social Network Analysis as Research Methodology Social Network Analysis is an interdisciplinary research programme which helps in predicting the structures of relationships among social entities as well as impact of said structure on the other social phenomenon. The essential elements of this programme are built around some core concepts and methods for the measurement, representation and analysis of social structure. A social network is a set of actors (points, nodes or agents) that may have relationships (or ties) with one another. A network can have one or more actors and there can be one or more kinds of relations between pair of actors. Scientists in the social network field use specialized jargon and notation.
Why? Bacause practical work is essential for developing student’s scientific knowledge. The learning of science should involve seeing, handling and manipulating real objects and materials and that teaching science will involve acts of ‘showing’ as well as ‘telling’ (Millar, 2004). In addition, students are able to communicate among themselves with the practical activity while committing to their task with their minds as as their hands. Students will be prompted to handle the phenomena at hand on conceptual level and at the same time promote to make links between the practical and theoretical understandings.
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOLODOGY This chapter outlines philosophical and methodological techniques employed in this empirical study. It includes the ontological, epistemological and methodological standpoints the researcher adopted to carry out this research. The researcher briefly discusses and presents research design, study population and area, the procedure of selecting the sample size, research instruments, data collection, quality control and analysis of data. Philosophical underpinning of the study The researcher will adapt post positivism, a modified social science paradigm as a philosophical stand point for this research. This philosophy will guide the researcher to the belief that the knowledge in question exists in this
Philosophical perspective The selection of philosophical perspective of the research is usually based on the research question. When undertaking research, it is important to consider different research philosophies. The basic philosophical approaches are ontology, epistemology and axiology. Ontology describes the view of the researcher on the nature of reality. It is the assumptions the researcher makes in his mind about the way in which the world works.
This chapter will also talk about the pragmatic competence, pragmatic instruction in the classroom and speech acts. Finally the experimental perspectives about the pragmatic competence and usage of apology as a pragmatic competence in the literature also will be discussed. 2.2 Theoretical Background The theoretical background of this study is divided into some sections which will be discussed in details. First of all, the importance of Communication and interaction in Classroom Context and its sub sections will be reviewed. Then, definitions of cooperative learning and its underlying theories will be