Introduction Modern society tends to stereotypical thinking and perception of gender differences. It is extremely important to pay attention to stereotypes, not to give in to the impact on the perception and livelihoods. Some of the most common stereotypes is the idea of typical female and typically male qualities. The presence of different social roles, which are perceived as the fundamental differences between men and women in their psyche and activities, forms gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes are formed within a particular culture.
Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19). According to her, gender identity is a signifier for human beings; it can be used in the process of forming individuals’ identity. Thus, it becomes a demand to study gender identity. Gender identity is a personal inner sense of self as a male or female. Psychological theory of gender identity reveals a new postmodern problematic issue related to gender identity: gender identity as a personal feeling, can be changed, transformed and masqueraded.
It was found that "taking charge" was perceived predominantly as a male trait and "taking care" was associated with a woman. Certain traits that are perceived as feminine can also be seen as less vital to leadership. This can lead women being evaluated more negatively than a man for positions in leadership. This does not only have a negative impact on women but also the company itself. Women are less likely to be chosen to work in positions of power because of false stereotypes.
male of female and these categories define how we behave. When we think of gender we think of male and female and also about their expected roles which are socially created and are considered “appropriate” for either of them, male and female. Sex is the biological makeup of a human, the internal and external reproductive organs. Many feminists have held to the idea of a firm feminine identity because they believe it is important in order to proceed with the interests of women. Without a center point for women, feminist identity politics would not be possible.
Theoretical Lens The concepts that framed the gender imbalance discourse originated from critical theories that guided organizational processes in the past. However, these ideas evolved into practices, which appear to now constitute limitations to and threaten women’s career progress and firm output (Higgs, 2003). Scholars have researched into why some organizations continued to rely on the critical theories that framed policy direction on gender issues despite its impact on top management diversity and organizational performance (Davies, 2011). Empirical research on the subject of women's advancement indicated that firms could benefit more if managers adopted a different approach to policy formation on gender-related issues outside those enunciated
Again, by living in a lie, one cannot have a real relationship with them self. In other words, lying to one's self through gender's prerequisites distorts one's true desires for satisfaction from themselves. In their article, "Doing Gender", authors Candace West and Don H. Zimerman discuss gender as a routine in everyday life, elaborating on the perspectives of sex, gender, and sex categories. They describe, "When we view gender as an accomplishment, an achieved property of situated conduct, our attention shifts from matters internal to the individual and focuses on interactional and, ultimately, institutional arenas." Focusing on conforming to gender removes any sense of self; this is because the beliefs adopted from gender were not conceived personally or with consideration to unorthodox beliefs; gender does not consider beliefs outside of a culture and its norms, only giving its participants the knowledge of their culture's gender.
Carrier (1995) found that there was reluctance on the part of senior management to employ certain groups of women due to their current or possible future family commitments. Lane and Piercy (2003) also indicated that male and female societal predefined roles determine their roles in the work environment. Heilman (1997) claimed that it is a common view that men are more focused on getting the work done while women are focused on keeping people happy. Jamieson (1995) also referred to the femininity-competency bind which means that acting in a feminine manner is seen as being incompetent; while being competent is associated with masculine traits and thus being ‘un-feminine’. These double binds have resulted in women continuously self-monitoring themselves, and thus drain the energy that could be applied to more important work related issues (Oakley,
The “token status” is generating and confirming gender stereotypes. More than in other groups because such a single woman (in a male group) is always compared to a female role model. This effect is related to the "gender-role spillover". - Think manager - Think male According to Neuberger (2002) this phenomenon is explaining that the typical image of top-level leaders in the society has a big congruence to the image of the male
According to Islamic principles, both men and women have absolutely the same human rights, but if we attentively look after their roles in real life, one can easily observe that there is discrimination. As it is said before, my research questions were: Is there gender inequality between men and women? To what extent people's belief about gender inequality is right and who benefits more out of it: men or women? In order to answer the given questions an internet survey and an interview were conducted, where survey mostly was directed to answer to the first question, while second question were discussed in an unstructured interview. 1.1.
In Gender as an analytic category, Guy-Sheftall affirms, “Sexual attributes are a biologically given, but gender is a function of historical process.” The example she states, “The fact that women have to bear children is due to sex; that women are assigned the major responsibility throughout the world for nurturing children is due to gender, a cultural construct” This constructs is formed and reformed though many institutions such as school and jobs, and through others means such as religion, language and media and etc. We are what we continuously do. Society achieves this success of these constructs by continuing to normalize these roles and make others feel bad as soon as they step out of these bounds ensuring this process. Additionally, within Gender Talk, the phrase “the personal is political (pg. 4) is coined to depict how women are taught these roles.