The four famously known theorists are Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, and Karl Marx. Each studied and viewed social behavior in a way they believed was the way it should be viewed; hence, they came up with different theories that categorizes society in many different aspects. Emile Durkheim was a father of sociologist who was famous for his views on the structure of society and its functions. His work was majored on how traditional and modern societies evolved and operate. Durkheim's theories were based on the concept of social facts.
Science of Sociology There are a number of different definitions of ‘sociology’ and they all have the fundamental idea of “the ways in which society operates”. It can be described more formally as the study of the development, structure and function of human society. Sociology is unlike some other sciences, such as mathematics, where a series of propositions will usually lead to definite conclusions. Sociology is often defined as a social science because it deals with the ways in which human beings interact with each other. It looks at the ways in which people make decisions about other people and why they interact in that way.
Social class contains a lot of significance in social sciences because it sets the basis for social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories. These categories further lead up to class conflicts and social problems which we see in society today. Since the main aim of social sciences is to explain the cause and effect of any social issue, sociologists tend to first explain the definition of class and their interpretation of the term followed by its effects in a society. Among these sociologists there were two very influential personalities who developed their work to explain the definition and the formation of the social class. Karl Marx, being an economist, believes that these social classes are a direct result of economic factors.
In an attempt to understand how science evolves, Thomas Kuhn proposed the idea that in a particular scientific discipline and in a specific time period there exist a leading paradigm. This was in response to the commonly held belief that science evolves in a cumulative manner. In addition, George Ritzer uses Khun’s theory as background in order to make the social world easier to understand. He believed that Sociology is a multiple paradigm science, which embodied three major paradigms. Namely, the social facts, the social definition and the social behaviour paradigms, but he found that these paradigms were too one sided in their approach.
It is therefore seen as a paradigm shift applicable to the sciences (Ball, 1978). The role of Niklas Luhmann in the development of the systems theory in sociology is aptly illustrated by Ritzer (2008) in his book ‘Sociological Theory’. Ritzer states that the chapter on systems theory would not have been possible were it not for the works of Luhmann. Luhmann’s theory of society is one of the most elaborate and it draws impetus from at least three theoretical backgrounds or pillars namely systems theory, theory of social evolution and theory of social differentiation (Albert, 2016). He established his theory of society as a response to Parsons’s approach to structural functionalism.
For Luhmann, a theory of society refers to a sociology theory which is able to account for all societal phenomena. Luhmann thought sociology is influenced by theory crisis. Empirical research’s, though it has been successful in increasing knowledge, has not been able to produce a unified theory for the discipline. Luhmann tried to revitalize the idea of a universal sociological theory, which would allow sociology to describe modern society more precise in all its dimensions. Luhmann believed that sociology could progress with a new grand theory, theoretical edifice.
As Ghoshal, 2005 says When in totalled from overall perspective, meaning in essence Social Scientists carry greater social and moral responsibility than natural or physical sciences scientists as social sciences deal predominantly with Humans and behaviours. Social Scientists and Theorists can't hide any ideology or Theory as one belong to a different school of thought, hence One can look at the below other important theoretical basis for this article. As per Parsons, Merton, Germain, Gitterman, SYSTEMS THEORY is one which includes ecological systems which How humans interact with their social setting and environment, Humans are in continual transaction with their social setting or social environment, can they shy away from the setting?, Systems are interrelated parts constituting an ordered whole system where in each subsystem impacts all other parts and the whole system. Systems can have closed or open boundaries but finally systems tend towards equilibrium thus maintaining social balance. Quoting Bowen, Satir, Minuchin, Carter and McGoldrick, Family Systems can be defined as the one which focuses on How the family system affects the individual and family functioning across the life-span of any Individual functioning shapes family functioning and family systems can create 'pathology' within the individual boundaries, roles, communication, family structure influence family functioning.
Introduction Sociology is the study of the society systematically; it contains the order of relationship of social, culture and communication of society. Before the development of Sociology, the society’s study was conducted in unsystematic method. It is only possible the systematic study of society by the sociology study. Studying sociology is necessary to learn about the society’s factors and institutions and their impact on population and individual. It is only possible by systematic study of sociology about the study of factors of society and great institutions.
The interpretation of the society appreciates the understanding of local context, dwelling on the empathetic efforts in interpreting social behaviours and phenomenon. As such, interpretive sociology aims to dive into the depths of society and understand “the motives and meanings that guide individuals’ actions” (Alexander and Thompson 2008, p. 42). Max Weber’s worldly renowned book economy and society, talks about the observations made in formulating the social action theory, as he subjects himself into the profound frictions and “observed them at close range” (Scaff 2008, p. 64). While the positivist crunches the numbers and produce casual relationships to understand the actual experience of the society, the interpretive sociologist on the other hand develops the empirical evidence and formulate a “thematic analysis” that emphasize on the “process of social meanings” (Neumann 2000, p.
Biology is seen to proceed its studies from that of the organic whole unlike physics or chemistry that deals with isolation of elements.And it is through this emphasis on the organic unit that sociology is seen in common relations to biology.Just as biology can’t explain the function of an organ without considering the whole,the same way sociology can’t explain a social phenomena without the total social context.Thus in brief,through the way an organism’s parts relate to the whole system and how it goes about maintaining it,he believes that it can be looked upon as a model to study society. Coming then within the British circle of theorists,we see that much like Comte,Spencer too believed in the emergence of a science of society.This being said,unlike Comte who wanted to study sociology to guide men to build a better society to exist in,Spencer wanted the new science to show to the modern state that mankind shouldn’t interfere with the natural processes occurring in the society.Nevertheless,what we look upon to is the understanding held by both Comte and Spencer on how through the help of a biological model,the structure and functioning of a society could be