Various moments in time have triggered an act of urgency and produced endless questions that center around the complexity of how the world is structured and its impact on the present and past society. These questions then become a vital part of the creation of social theory. Through the different lenses of the countless theorist, the binary questions that are made to deconstruct the theoretical perspective that the anti-intellectuals present to the public, create a different framework for how the people define structure and "play". Through the viewpoints of W.E.B Dubois and Elie Pariser, the discussion of the social imagination and intellect are revealed. By integrating concepts from Dubois and Pariser, we can further analyze the structure of society and how the relationship with the past supplied the foundation for the perspectives of the classic theorist.
Weber is redefining capitalism or at the least the essence of capitalism that he saw as the natural evolution of ascetic Protestantism. Weber’s use of the term ‘capitalism’ along with ‘religion’ is somewhat problematic and has created much debate, when applied to the interpretation of the origins of modern western economy. For Weber, capitalism is “identical with the pursuit of profit, and forever renewed profit, by means of continuous, rational, capitalistic enterprise. For it must be so: in a wholly capitalistic order of society, an individual capitalistic enterprise which did not take advantage of its opportunities for profitmaking would be doomed to extinction.” (xxxii) I think that Weber narrows the definition of capitalism and presents the capitalistic spirit as a limited concept. Throughout his writings, He judges modern capitalism as rational and anything irrational to be not capitalism.
When society pushes one ideal to the point of ignoring other possibilities, in this case regarding sexuality and gender, and it can be extremely difficult for some parents to except their children are not going to live the life that they envisioned. This can be even worse, for both parents and children, when deeply conservative religious convictions come into play. Structural functionalism is another perspective in sociology research, and is attributed to Emile Durkheim. Durkheim is also considered by many to be the father of modern social sciences, and is often referred to as the first sociologist. His work led to the formal adoption of sociology as an academic discipline.
Nor is it constrained by instrumental goals. In addressing concerns about the validity of interpretive sociological research, the noted sociologist Anthony Giddens proposed three kinds of sociological imagination, which he hoped would further understanding of social structure. He categorized them as: historical, cultural and critical. Given that the sociological imagination can be described as an attempt to understand what is going on around us in order to “seek to understand the present”, Gidden (1997, p. 578) notes that the complexity of human behavior means that “it is very unlikely that a single theoretical perspective could cover all its
Religious beliefs and values of primitive society gave meaning and significance to people. The modern world, as Weber thought, was transforming human beings into merely cogs and bureaucratic machines, trapped in an “iron cage” of bureaucratic rationalisation- not as complex human beings with sensibilities and souls (Lippmann and Aldrich, 2001). “Specialists without spirit, sensualists without heart” (SAGE, 2004 pp.180) as Weber expressed, reinforces the loss of humanity in our “iron cage”. The “iron cage” is reflective of Weber as a pessimist of progression of the modern world. His pessimism indicates that, all the best intentions in the world may not necessarily produce good outcomes (Weber, 1905/1930).
In his most famous publication, Weber studies the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of contemporary capitalism. He accounts bureaucracy as a key feature in modern society. This is in no way a detailed account of Protestantism itself but instead an introduction to his later studies such as “The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism” or “The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism”. Weber argues that the “spirit” that defines capitalist ideas originates in the Protestant Reformation. The Reformation largely influences his work and he noted the shift in Europe’s economic centre following this, away from Catholic countries, for example France, towards protestant countries, for
The original sociologists assumed that the study of sociology would help society to progress to better understanding and this would therefore in turn help to shape better human systems. The concept of positivism dominated sociological thinking from the early part of the 19th century until the early 1960s. Many of the ideas originated with Emile Durkheim who in turn was influenced by Auguste Comte. They both adopted a holistic approach and assumed that in the same way that biologists could improve their study of their subject by studying populations of living creatures (whether it was comparatively simple organisms or much more complicated ones), then this could also be true of human social organisms. They assumed that we would gain more data so that we could in turn test this data
a. Sociology is the study of the social relationships that affect the humans as well as institutions. It involves many fields of study that include crime, religion, family, race, culture and society among others. It is the primary purpose of sociology to provide linkage to all of these different subjects to help in understanding how humans behave (Smith, 2016). b. Sociological enquiry is the careful analysis of the motivational factors as well as the behavior of a certain individual within a particular group of people.
In another major work, Politics as a Vocation, Weber defined the state as an entity which successfully claims a monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory". He was also the first to categories social authority into distinct forms, which he labeled as charismatic, traditional, and rational-legal. His analysis of bureaucracy emphasized that modern state institutions are increasingly based on rational-legal authority. Weber also made a variety of other contributions in economic history, as well as economic theory and methodology. Weber 's analysis of modernity and rationalization significantly influenced the critical theory associated with the Frankfurt School.
“Sociology is the systematic study of human society. It is a form of consciousness, a way of thinking, a critical way of seeing society” (Haralambos & Holborn, Sociology). “Sociology is first and foremost a way of thinking about the human work (It asks how) does it matter that humans love always (and cannot but live) in the company of, in communication with, in exchange with, in competition with in cooperation with other human’s beings? Its questions defamiliarize the familiar” (Auguste Comte, Haralombos & Holborn, Sociology). Zygmunt Bauman, a prominent Polish humanist.