After reading “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” by Jonathan Edwards and “The Age of Reason” by Thomas Paine, I will discuss the relationship between religious faith and logical reason. Do we need to make people have a fear of God to prepare them for salvation like Edwards wrote? Should we give them a chance to use their reason to discover their faith like Paine discussed? Can we combine religion with reason? Jonathan Edwards believed in the punishment of an angry God on his wicked Israelites.
Because of the Reformation, many religious wars were occurring, and monarchs like Philip II “… believed that it was his duty to defend Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the Protestants of Europe.” (Pg. 591) Philosopher Voltaire argued for many freedoms. Many of them included the freedom of religion, he said, “… Christians should tolerate each other” (Doc 7). He also fought for other rights as well, Voltaire also fought for freedom of speech and press.
At the time people of different religions did not get along well. Voltaire was hoping to change the minds of the people and government to creating unity throughout society. Voltaire also went on to say that people should have freedom of what they preach and that the natural rights of men should be respected. In monarchies, the ruler would take away all the rights people had. Voltaire was attempting to restore the natural rights of men and abandon absolute monarchies.
Voltaire wrote poems, novels, essays, plays, and more than 20,000 personal letters. Voltaire's idea of a better society, was freedom in religion. The Royal Exchange in London was where the representatives of all nations meet and try to profess the same religion. But Volaire states that “if there is one religion, then it would be a arbitrary, and if there was two, people would kill one and others, but if there was a multitude of religions, there would be peace and happiness”(Doc 2). Voltaire's idea is similar to John Locke's idea.
Voltaire differentiate the benefits of religious freedom to the benefits of economic freedom. In document B it says, a society works best and most peacefully when all participants can freely sell their goods or practice their religious ideas. In document B it also says, when people can practice their own religion freely, they will get along as well as foreign traders at an economic exchange. Be restricting religious choice, bitterness arises and different sects are at each other’s throats. In addition in document B, if the government restricted religious freedom you would get people at each other’s throats.
After the split of the colonist and England new laws were placed to separate church and state. Before they were separated the government and religion were together. Based on what people wanted this New government was put in place so that more people were involved in the government and part of decision making. In Thomas paine's pamphlets he always encouraged perseverance to people. The two guiding principles are different because perseverance is doing something no matter how difficult it could be and respect is something that you give and receive.
Pojman asserts that this question highlights the question whether or not morality and religion are intertwined. Moreover, Socrates’ comments and critiques of Euthyphro’s claims provide readers a powerful model for what true dialectic thus promoting the development of a strong intellectual spine and the true core of
The Great Awakening put its faith in Scripture while the Enlightenment put theirs in science. Christians and philosophes both wanted religious freedom and they shared a scorn for political or religious leaders who appealed power over others by virtue of divine right. Both didn’t accept the basic principle of why the king of England supported by the Church of England or had any inherent right to rule over the American
Voltaire 's Candide: "All is not for the best." Introduction: Voltaire (real name Francois-Marie Arouet), was born in 1694 to a middle class Parisian family. He first studied law to fulfil his father 's wish, but later became a well-known writer and philosopher. He lived most of his life in exile, because of his satirical tales that attack the French State, the Catholic Church, the aristocracy, and the military. For instance, the Grand Inquisitor; the Bulgarian Captain; and the arrogant Young Baron all represent the absurdity of that time.
Among the religions and beliefs during the 16th century, there were different opinions on how to run society and the government. Martin Luther and John Calvin were two leaders in the Protestant Reformation who wanted change in the Catholic Church. Although Luther and Calvin were similar in the political authority and ecclesiastical, they differed on religion and society. Luther and Calvin were both Protestants who believed the Catholic Church was corrupt due to the selling of indulgences and the preaching of salvation.
Religion is a cultural universal that affects society in so many different ways. The various teachings can give explanations of things seemingly unexplainable, it can act as a way of social control, but either way religion is an integral part of American society now and it was maybe even more so in early America. In early 17th century, the Puritans came to America in a great migration to escape religious persecution and in the hopes of creating “a city upon a hill.” They established their society in New England and Puritanism dominated the area. In Puritan colonies, there was very little distinction between law and religious decrees, and this is just one of the examples of how Puritanism was the foundation of New England culture.
Faith and reason are the two wings that help the man to rise to the truth. Faith and Reason (Fides et Ratio) are like two wings on which the human spirit rises to the contemplation of truth. This expression leads Pope John Paul II 's encyclical "Fides et Ratio". After reading this encyclical, I was amazed in how Pope John Paul II, in so few many words is able to synthesize the core of his letter, the subject of truth, something essential in life and history of men. Thus, as Pope John Paul II sponsors the capacity of human reason to be aware of the truth and demand that faith and philosophy again find their profound unity.
Albeit Aristotle and Locke lived 2,000 years apart, their periods in history were similar. Both eras were marked by wars, tyrannical figures, and political and social instability in ancient Greece and medieval England. However, there was one major difference in their epochs, religion. The Greeks practice polytheism, while Christianity was practiced in Europe during Locke’s time.