Table of Content Introduction on Socrates 3 The relationship between Socrates, Plato, Xenophon and Aristotle 4 Socratic Method 6 Socratic Paradoxes 8 Contribution of Socrates to sociology 10 Death and Execution 12 Conclusion 15 References 16 INTRODUCTION ON SOCRATES To begin with, Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher who was born 470 BC in Athens, Greece. Laying the foundations of Western Philosophy, Socrates is still seen as a bewildering figure. There is little information about his writings and he is mostly recognized by his students Plato and Xenophon as well as through the plays of Aristophanes. These plays provide an irreplaceable and vivid portrayal of Socrates ' philosophy and personality. Concerning his personal life, Socrates was the son of Sophroniscus, an Athenian stone mason and sculptor, and Phanerate, a midwife.
In his famous work “The Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals” Kant tries to develop a moral philosophy which depends on fundamental concepts of reason and tries to show that while making moral choices we should use reason. Kant, as an Enlightenment philosopher, places all his confidence in reason. In the first chapter, we generally recognized that an action is moral if and only if it is performed for the sake of duty. Duty commands itself as imperative. There are two types of imperatives as hypothetical and categorical.
Write an essay on the importance of Plato’s thinking on early medieval philosophy. Philosophy (Philosophia) is simply the love of wisdom. Logic/Ethics/physics= Philosophy. Plato (428BCE-347) was born in Athens and was a student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle. Plato lived in what is widely known as the classical Greek period.
Keep everything in moderation, except virtue. Aristotle believes that no human ‘will’ is bad, if it can be controlled by reasoning based on moral principles. There is one way to acquire moral virtue, and this way is a combination of knowledge, adaptation and self-discipline (Falcon, 2015,
Furthermore, Socrates would never rationalize breaking the law because it would be violating an agreement made between the citizen and the state. The state is responsible for taking care of its citizen, whether it is in the form of education, health or protection and in return the citizen should follow the laws set by the state. Socrates mentioned that “it is impious to bring violence to bear against your mother or father; it is much more so to use it against your country”(Plato 54). In addition, Socrates believes that even though an injustice has been done one cannot amend the wrongdoing with injustice. “That neither to do wrong nor to return a wrong is ever correct, nor is doing harm in return for harm done”(Plato
Aristotle is the greatest philosopher of antiquity. According to the breadth of his influence on philosophical and scientific thought of antiquity, the Middle Ages and modern times, Aristotle is the figure of exceptional importance. This is not only the breadth of scientific interests of the scientist (a legacy of Aristotle covers the entire spectrum of scientific issues – from global to private philosophy of natural science and humanities), but mostly a special mold of his thoughts, in which subtle analysis is combined with a convincing systematization of concepts and categories (Aristotle and Roberts, 1984). Aristotle (384-322 BC) a great Greek philosopher and scientist, a student of Plato, the founder of the Peripatetic school (Adler, 1997).
Critic Mark Van Doren adds that Hawthorne did not believe there is no such thing as sin, but he did believe that to sin is a violation more against oneself than against God. Hester’s punishment is not the business of the townspeople because it is impossible for them to determine how she should make her soul right with
Thus, they hold that personhood is largely irrelevant to the problem of abortion. In his Life's Dominion, Dworkin, writes it would be wise [...] to set aside the question of whether a fetus is a person [...] because it is too ambiguous to be helpful (1993, 23). However, although one can agree that the concept of person and personhood is ambiguous, this does not entail that we should not discuss and qualify what is a person. Being ambiguous is not an enough reason to leave a complicated concept such as personhood. Although we addressed, negatively, why
The theory of deontology states we are morally obligated to act in accordance with obvious set of principles and rules regardless of results. Deontological ethics focuses on duties, and rights. The term deontological was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham, who described it as “knowledge of what is right or proper” Bentham thought that deontology points in the direction of principle of utility. But contemporary philosophers use the term deontological to indicate a contrast with the utilitarian focus on the consequences of action. Instead of focusing on consequences, deontological ethics focus on duties and obligation: things we ought to do regardless of the consequences.
Kant emphasizes the role of the moral philosopher to reveal the ambiguity about what it is moral to be crystal clear, and humans are rational beings who should strive for moral maxims motivated by the good will. Furthermore, he argues that human don not need a moral philosopher to show which action is right, we already know what he calls the common human reason. Kant favours to endeavor to do the right actions over the good actions as his attempts to portray the ideal world or the moral utopia. Kantian Deontology theory and the Categorical Imperatives frameworks urge decision-makers to strive for beneficence as a mean to resolve the challenging ethical dilemmas they face, obligating the decision-maker to act ethically and morally motivated by duty. The categorical imperatives are impartial, autonomous, and strict by which tackle respecting others and their dignity, universalize the maxims of our actions, and targeting the Kingdom of
Heartbreak, loss of a loved one, loneliness, etc. are all “harms” that we can admit to feeling. Socrates disregards this with his assumption of only physical harm being possible; therefore a complete end of existence would be harmless. He also states that nothing can harm a good man either in life or after death, and his fortunes are not a matter of indifference to the gods. However, in this world harms happen to good and bad alike.