The oldest of the three philosophers, Socrates, was born 470 BCE and passed in 399 BCE. Socrates has been credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. The majority of what we know about Socrates stems from the surviving body of published work of his students, such as Plato, and his written piece, The Apology. Socrates thought that the acquiring of knowledge meant to become virtuous, and virtue was necessary to achieve ultimate happiness. Socrates pushed for others to strive for self-knowledge and sought wisdom himself on a daily basis.
Throughout history there has been an abundance of ancient philosophers, including Plato, who explored metaphysics and its relationship to the real world before Descartes’ began questioning the idea. Nevertheless, his views on dualism are very different from Plato’s. As we know, Plato thinks and feels as if the body is just a vessel for the soul, but Descarte on the other hand strongly believes and shows proof that both your soul and body are connected and intertwining. Stating one is not superior to the other, both work hand and hand, affecting each other. Descartes states that “I reflect therefore I am.” Descartes shows through his dualism that though the mind and body are separate , they are connected and reliant on one another.
Aristotle first discussed ethics, virtue, and their relationship to happiness around 340 BC. in The Nicomachean Ethics (trans. 1953). This work, later known as Aristotelian ethics identifies the struggle to come to terms with living a good life. These are questions that have been pursued through the ages and in this essay, I will be investigating the theory behind the identification of my own signature strengths and corresponding virtues as proposed by Seligman and Peterson (2004), touching on the ideas behind the theory of positive psychology (Peterson, 2006).
If you were to ask an individual what their perception of the self is, you would get a variety of answers but mainly along the lines of, the self is an inner being that one possesses. For many years philosophers have attempted to find the answer of what exactly is the self and how it relates to the brain and mind. There are two important philosophers I will discuss in this essay; whose ideas and thoughts vary in comparison to what the knowledge of a self is. Descartes and Locke are two philosophers that have many thoughts and concepts to offer towards self, identity, and consciousness. Rene Descartes, commonly known as the “Father of Philosopher” seeks to find if the self exists.
The disciple/student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, Plato was born, it is estimated between 429 and 423 BCE. This ancient Greek mathematician and philosopher, who was born shortly after the commencement of the Pelopennesian War, is wildly acknowledged as an unparalleled influencer of Western thought via his philosophical works. Amongst his many works, Plato wrote of justice, which has still, to this day, stirred and maintained discussions amongst the grandest and the smallest minds. A definition of justice is not definitive when perusing the works of Plato, especially that of Republic. Instead, Plato’s conception of justice is dissected into two main analogies.
Both Plato and Aristotle are the most recognisable philosophers of the Classical Greek era as they were the first to have surviving and complete written works. Although Aristotle’s philosophies diverges largely from those of Plato’s, it is still important to account that this way of thinking would have never emerged if not for Plato, and before him Socrates, etc.… This can only be recognised as a result of that very first question that the first noted philosopher, Thales, inquired. As Philosophers begin to emerge, and new ideas contradicting the previous ones begin to develop, the never-ending chain of philosophy accounted by followers of philosophy and their predecessors will continue to flourish our very thought on life and its
He greatly influenced and laid the foundation of western philosophy. He was Socrates’ student and the teacher of Aristotle who is also one of the greatest philosophers. Plato believed that the World of Matter and World of Forms are different. World of Form is the permanent reality which makes a thing be what it is. World of Matter is that which the thing is made of.
Plato, being the pivot figure in the history of Western thought, established the compound, yet complete and multifaceted philosophical system, which methodology and perspicacious semantic substance laid the foundation for the future human development for hundreds of years to come, igniting curiosity in the minds of numerous scholars throughout history. Essential political ideas of Plato are predominantly expressed in his groundbreaking work “The Republic,” including the fundamental theoretical discussion of an ideal state that I am willing to analyze in my essay. Plato’s idyllic Polis, resembling the human soul that incorporates the trinity of appetite, spirit, and reason, is composed of three types of inhabitants that correspond to each constituent
What caused the progression of political philosophy are the different events and experiences which shaped the kind of political discipline we have now, but still traces its roots to political philosophy. The study of politics has evolved because of different events adding to the development of the discipline. The methods and approaches used by political philosophers reflect the general philosophical tendencies of their period in history. In the beginning, political philosophy was the sole basis of the study of politics because it provides wisdom. As knowledge advanced and different events occurred, political philosophy and political science diverged further and further from each other, bringing us to the situation today.
How does one know what the difference between what the soul desires and what the body desires? Socrates claims that the immortal soul is searching for an ultimate wisdom and good, while the mortal body has only desires of the physical earth. How does the soul know to search for the ultimate truth? Does an individual reach this objective through process of thought, or is it only taught to them? I would like to know because it seems that few people are philosophers, and if the ultimate goal of the soul (rhyme not intended) is to reach the ultimate truth, then why would so many individuals not have the idea or teachings to give them the chance to attempt to become a philosopher?