The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
One of the reactions you observed resulted in this product: NaCl + H2O + CO2 (g)? What well did this reaction occur in? Describe how the observations for this reaction support your answer. B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript70 Words A reaction I observed in number 1.) Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid.
Zeinab Ossaili - 7654795 Synthesis Lab – Experiment 1: Separation By Distillation The objective of this experiment is: • To use simple distillation to purify liquids. • To experience the limits of simple distillation when it comes to separations. • To use fractional distillation to separate mixtures of liquids. Method used: Distillation 1 – Distillation of an organic liquid containing a non-volatile coloured impurity • The distillation apparatus was assembled in regards to the instructions given and this was done by setting up the heating mantle followed by the round bottom flask, the reduction adapter, still head, thermometer adapter and finally the thermometer. • After the above was assembled the still head was connected to the condenser which had the tubing connected to allow water in and out.
The aqueous layer was drained, and NaOH was added to neutralize the solution, and deprotonate the conjugate acid to reform the original base, which, as an organic base, was mostly insoluble in an aqueous solution, and precipitated out. Similarly, NaOH deprotonated the organic acid to form a polar water soluble conjugate base. When HCl was added to neutralize the solution, the conjugate base was reprotonated, and the largely insoluble organic acid precipitated out. Sodium sulfate crystals were added to the neutral compound in the organic solvent, because of their hygroscopic property, in order to remove all water from the ethyl acetate solution. The crystals were then filtered out using a piece of cotton with a glass funnel, which ideally trapped and removed all sodium sulfate
The hydroxyl group (-OH) of NaOH attacks an electrophilic carbon of >N-C=O which as rearrangement gives carbonial . This carbonial abstract proton from water to give NAG. The established over degradation of NAG to 4-MBA was also obseved in alkali condition. Degradation pathway of AN is shown in Fig.3. The isolated degradation products are subjected to Mass studies to obtain their accurate mass fragment patterns.
Experiment 4: Formal Report Preparation and Recrystallisation of Aspirin Aim of the experiment: In this experiment, a pure sample of aspirin is to be obtained through esterification to synthesise the sample, then purify the sample by recrystallisation. Lastly, determine the melting point of the sample to characterise the aspirin. Introduction: Background Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is an aromatic compound that contains an ester- functional group and a carboxylic acid- functional group. Aspirin is commonly used as a pain reliever (analgesic), an anti-inflammatory, an anti-coagulant (prevent platelet aggregation) and an antipyretic (to reduce fever) pill. It helps to prevent strokes, heart attacks and blood clot formation.
The next step is to rinse the calcium oxalate and sprinkle some deionized water and pour it into a beaker. Then add hydrochloric acid to create calcium chloride (CaCl2), according to the formula: CaC2O4 + 2HCl -> CaCl2 + 2CO2 + H2. Add sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), to the calcium chloride you already have. This will make calcium carbonate ( CaCO3), according to the formula: Na2CO3 + CaCl2 -> CaCO3 + 2NaCl. Afterward, filter this solution to obtain the calcium carbonate.
To indicate the separation effect for different ratio of p-xylene to methyl acetate more clearly, Fig. 4 shows the dependence of selectivity on the water/acetic acid mass ratio in the initial mixture for various different ratios of p-xylene to methyl acetate in the initial mixture. These results reveal the general capability of mixed solvent to extract acetic acid from the aqueous phase at different feed composition. As mentioned earlier, methyl acetate has been put up in this industrial operation, since it was available as the byproduct of terephthalic acid production. As can be seen in Fig.4, a higher ratio of p-xylene to methyl acetate can produce higher selectivity of acetic acid against water.
Confirmatory tests : confirm the presence of the cation/anion in a given compound. Qualitative tests The addition of hydrochloric acid to solutions containing carbonate or bicarbonate ions or to solid samples of carbonates and bicarbonates causes the rapid evolution (production) of carbon dioxide gas. The equations for the reaction of acid with these ions are: H + (aq) + HCO3 - (aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g) 2H+ (aq) + CO3 -2 (aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g) Solutions containing hydrogencarbonate ions react with hydrochloric acid, producing carbon dioxide gas. For example, NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + H2O + CO2↑ Solutions containing carbonate ions also
Enthalpy of neutralization The purpose of this experiment is to determine the enthalpy change for the reaction between aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl). Introduction A neutralization reaction is a chemical reaction where a base and an acid react with each other. The products will always be water and a salt. The balanced reaction equation for this experiment is the reaction below (Enthalpy of neutralization, 2018). 〖NaOH〗_((aq))+〖HCl〗_((aq))→〖NaCl〗_((aq))+H_2 O_((l)) In aqueous solutions the substances that are involved will experience dissociation, which changes the ionization state of the substances (Neutralization, 2018).
Here, it can be seen that the chlorine anion that was a part of the hydrochloric acid is transferred to the pure magnesium, leaving behind hydrogen. Double-replacement reactions are yet another type of chemical reactions. A double-replacement reaction also involves the transfer of anions. However, unlike a single-replacement reaction, a double-replacement reaction has two anions being intrechanged. An example of this type of reaction would be the combination of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to form water and sodium chloride: HCl + NaOH --> H2O +
An example of a double displacement reaction occurred between zinc chloride and sodium sulfide to form zinc sulfide and sodium chloride. ZnCl2(aq) + Na2S(aq)= ZnS(s) + NaCl(aq). Ionic reactions occurred between ions in aqueous solution. A reaction occurs when a pair of ions come together to produce at least one of the following: a precipitate, a gas, water, or some other non‐ionized substance. An examples of ionic reactions, if a compound is soluble in water then it should be shown as being in aqueous solution, or left as separate ions.
Two chemical reactions are carried by adding sodium hydroxide to the acidic solution from Part I. During the first reaction is the neutralization of the excess of nitric acid in the mixture by sodium hydroxide. The second reaction takes the place after naturalization is a complete and NaOH is in excess. While the liquid inside the beaker is being stirred, with the stirring rod, 10 ml of 6 M NaOH is poured into the solution from Part I at 1 mL at a time. After each 1 mL the solution is tested for acidity with red litmus paper.