Essay 13: How does the brain sense osmolality and regulate water balance? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand the meaning of the term osmolality as well as its implications for human physiology. In chemistry, the osmolality of a solution is defined as the number of moles of solute (e.g. salt or sugar) per kilogram of solvent. When the solvent in question is water, osmolality is practically the same as the more familiar unit osmolarity, which is defined as moles of solute per liter of solvent.
The ATP pump is a sodium-potassium dependent pump that keeps the sodium concentration in the intracellular fluids to a minimum while the potassium levels high in extracellular fluids. Correctly identify possible acid based imbalances for which
Seriously low levels of sodium can result in cerebral edema with enhanced levels of intracranial pressure and brain herniation. This results in seizures, coma, and death. The mortality rate for hyponatremia cases is 17.9 %. In the case report, the sufferer's sodium level was 123 millimoles per liter. The fatality rate for sufferers with sodium levels below than 125 millimoles per liter is almost 30 %.
When a drop in blood pressure is detected, the medulla oblongata in the brain stimulates the juxtaglomerular kidney cells to secrete renin. Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme which is found in pulmonary blood vessels, acts on angiotensin I to convert it to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II activates angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2. The result of the activation of AT1 is vasoconstriction and secretion of aldosterone (Brenner et al, 2003). Aldosterone secretion results in fluid retention
Hypercalcemia result to High blood that can exist for many years. Hypercalcemia cause excessive calcium to discharge into the urine resulting to after effect of kidney stones or kidney damage as well with bones to lose calcium. Disorder can frequently be noticed during adolescence period. Hyperparathyroidism could cause no problems or un notice for many years, or possibly it may cause weakness, bone pain, indigestion, kidney stones, or thinning of bones. Based on the study the usual treatment is an operation to remove most or all of the parathyroid glands, to remove the three largest glands and all but a small part of the fourth, a further is to remove all glands and at the same time transplant a small part of one gland into the forearm similarly on the parathyroidectomy with left forearm autograft and total thyroidectomy.
M3 Cholinergic receptors are the one that responsible for parasympathetic detrusor contraction. Thus oxybutynin compete with acetylcholine (ACh), binding Oxybutynin lead inactivation of Phospholipase C and result in inhibition of Calcium ion releasing and lead to relaxation of detrusor muscle. Oxybutynin studies determine that Oxybutynin can increase maximum urinary bladder holding capacity and increases the volume to detrusor contraction. Oxybutynin is appropriate for the patients that having conditions of involuntary detrusor contractions such as Mrs.
Other symptoms may include incontinence, speech and hearing impairment. 4. Biochemical symptom of Sanfilippo syndrome On a biochemical level, Sanfilippo syndrome is characterized by the excess excretion of heparan sulfate in the urine and the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the central nervous system and other tissues. Sanfilippo syndrome is The most common disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism, a syndrome in which the onset of clinical abnormalities occurs between ages 2 and 6, with mild coarsening of the facial features (but normal clear corneas), mild stiffening of the joints, slowing of growth, and intellectual deterioration that results in severe mental
Primary Active Transport The energy is directly derived from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or some other high-energy phosphate compound. Substances that are transported by thus type of transport are sodium, potassium , calcium, hydrogen, chloride and many more. One main mechanism that uses primary active transport is the sodium-potassium pump. This transport process pumps sodium ions outward through the cell membrane of all cells ad at the same time pumps potassium ions from the outside to the inside This pump is responsible for maintaining the sodium-potassium concentration differences across the cell membrane as well as establishing a negative electrical voltage inside the cell. Secondary Active Transport The energy is derived secondarily from energy that has been stored in the form of ionic concentration differences of secondary molecular or ionic substances between two sides of a cell medium, originally created by primary active
For Mr. Tripson’s urine test, the physician wants to examine his dissolved particle-to-water levels, or osmolarity. Polyuria is a condition in which you lose a lot of water in your urine; the osmolarity test will determine how much water and what concentration of particles are in it. The two particles the physician is specifically interested in observing are glucose and ketones, both of which are indicators of diabetes mellitus. A presence of ketones in your urine could mean your body is burning fat instead of glucose for energy, which is common in diabetic patients, and could potentially lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, a complication of diabetes that can be fatal. In this case, the urine result
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. Doctors make this choice because the salt e.g. IV drips is about same as what’s in the blood stream. They do this because it helps to prevent the blood to go thinner and/or weaker. The IV drips particles start to go around the the body balancing it out for an equal rate of water and oxygen
When this gene has been mutated, it is unable to perform effectively, leaving exocrine based organs unprotected. (Human Genome Cystic Fibrosis) The symptoms of cystic fibrosis can vary from case to case, but the most common symptoms include male infertility, persistent coughing, salty-tasting skin, frequent lung infections such as penuomonia and bronchitis, shortness of breath, wheezing, weight-loss, and difficult bowel movements. Often times the acronym, CF, to represent cystic fibrosis. People with cystic fibrosis make it a very big priority to have minimal contact with