Soil Erosion Research Paper

1037 Words5 Pages
Soil Erosion
TarekSalimMattar
Fall 2014
RHU
Contents
Abstract: 3
Introduction: 4
What Is Soil Erosion? 4
Effects of Soil Erosion: 4
A. On-Site Effects: 4
B. Off-Site Effects: 4
Causes of Soil Erosion: 5
Types of Soil Erosion: 5
C. Wind Erosion: 5
D. Gravity Erosion: 5
E. Water Erosion: 6
a. Sheet Erosion: 6
b. Rill Erosion: 6
c. Gully Erosion: 7
d. Bank Erosion: 7
Recommendations: 7

Abstract:
Our world today, is facing a huge problem, the problem of soil erosion. Not only is it a very serious problem, it has also become widely spread that it demands our immediate action. Soil erosion is caused and affected by several factors; however, it can be minimized by several easy actions which one can implement daily.
Introduction:
Soil
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Soil 's hydrological, chemical, physical, and mineralogical characteristics are major contributors to soil erosion. Moreover, the landform in which the soil exists also affects its tendency to erode. If the soil is found at a steep slope gradient, it would be easier for soil erosion to take place.
Types of Soil Erosion:
Three different kinds of soil erosion exist: wind erosion, gravity erosion, and water erosion.
C. Wind Erosion:
Wind erosion takes place when soil particles are removed by the kinetic energy of the moving wind. These particles stay in motion till the energy level of the wind drops causing them to be deposited.
D. Gravity Erosion:
Gravity erosion occurs when soil particles found at a slope gradient are moved due to the force of gravity. This type of erosion usually occurs from high to low levels and is caused by the weight of the soil.
E. Water Erosion:
The last type of erosion is water erosion. Water erosion is when the soil particles are moved by the kinetic energy of the precipitating rain. This rain forces the soil mechanically to runoff. There are several types of water erosion: sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion, and bank
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Unaddressed rills will turn into large gullies. Gully erosion is a huge obstacle that farmers face since once affected, the land is no longer compatible with crops growth.
d. Bank Erosion:
Finally, bank erosion occurs at the "bank of a stream or waterway". When surface water moves, it moves towards the lowest point due to the law of gravity. With time, this water movement carries soil with it from the banks of the water pathway thus destroying the lining of these pathways, leading to bank erosion.
Recommendations:
Soil erosion can be prevented or minimized by several steps. First, planting grass over sports fields helps protect them from soil erosion since strong wind and heavy rainfall can damage these large areas. Second, one should always plant sloped gardens. Exposed slope gardens are highly prone to soil erosion and thus, planting them minimizes this danger. Third, houses and buildings should have "effective water collection and draining systems". This can help minimize the effect of rain on soil since the water will be drained from the streets thus leaving less room for this water to flow and displace soil layers. Fourth, governments and media should create awareness campaigns to help educate people about soil erosion and its danger and give them easy solutions which they can adopt in their daily lives. Fifth, one can build a wall or a fence around his property which can help minimize the effect of the

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