Water and wind erosion account for much of the erosion in the world. Running rivers and strong winds slowly wear away rock after a long period of time. Moreover, soil erosion can be accelerated by humans in a variety of ways. Such as, incorrect agriculture methods, hikers misusing trails, urbanization and deforestation.When farmers use improper agriculture methods erosion causes much
Have you come home from a long day of work and realized your house was devoured by the earth. Ask yourself, ‘why is this?’. This is because a sinkhole has formed in the area due to unstable land because the rock below the land has been replaced by the water, which can no longer hold up the land. They are very rare, although unpredictable. However, there are many factors of why a sinkhole may have happened.
This absence of oxygen allows the plant debris to persist. In addition, insects and other organisms that might decay the plant debris on land do not endure well under water in an oxygen-deficient environment. To form the thick layer of plant debris required to products a coal seam, the rate of plant debris accumulation must be more than the rate of decay. Once a thick layer of plant debris is molded, sediments such as mud or sand must bury it. These are naturally washed into the swamp by a flooding river.
Rivers are the primary movers of water over the globe, they tend to balance the evaporation deficit of the oceans. Wetzel (2003) states that precipitated water may either be intercepted or transpired by plants or may run off over the land as surface runoff. However, about 80% of the intercepted water and surface runoff are returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Besides, precipitated water may also infiltrate the ground. Infiltration is the process of movement of water through the boundary area in the soil.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 5.1 FIELD DATA COLLECTED AT CHHINKA VILLAGE Geotechnical tests for collected soil sample Geotechnical characteristics of soil play an important role in finding characteristic parameters of unstable slopes and ultimately in the preventive measures of landslide hazard. Hence, the task of generating the reliable and accurate geotechnical data is of paramount importance for a construction manager working on unstable slopes. The soil sample collected from selected active landslide zones is tested to investigate different geotechnical parameter. Some of the important tests are carried out as follows: 5.1.1 Water content of soil sample: It is the ratio expressed as percentage of weight of water in given soil mass to the weight of solid particles. The water content of soil is
Slope stability problems or failure happen when human or nature has disrupted the delicate balance of natural soil slopes. Human factor that contribute to slope failure are renovation slope, removal of vegetation and overloading on slope peak. With improper construction practice on natural slope such as widening of roads in hilly terrains, construction of embankments and foundations on soft soils will disturbs natural equilibrium of hill slope and increase the problem of slope instability. For natures factors are related to the type of thickness and material, geomorphology, cut
Roots growing produce CO2 as well as acid and areas of native grass tend to be less acidic than soil formed under areas of forests. These are all factors which can effect the soil pH and such changes in the soil pH can affect the vegetation. Different plants get affected differently by the acidity of the soil so it is significantly important to understand the relationship between a plant species with its favorable pH range. PM2.5 are particles that can be carried over long distances by wind and then settle on
Plants’ roots can also into a rock’s cracks. The growth of the plant causes the roots to create more and more pressure on the rock, eventually causing that part of the rock to break off. Abrasion is the physical grinding of rock fragments. Abrasion can be cause by water, wind, and gravity. The water can carry rocks while moving and cause them to scrape against other rocks, wind can move with tiny sediments that will scrape against large rocks causing small parts of the rock’s
Geomorphology of an area depends upon the structural evolution of geological formation. The study area comprises the features of structural origin and denudational origin. Ground water prospect of denudational landform is low compared to the other one. 4.4 Lineament Lineaments are indicators of subsurface faults and fractures influencing the occurrence of ground water acting as canals and reservoirs. Lineament density of an area can ultimately expose the groundwater potential, since the presence of lineaments usually signifies a permeable zone.
Pinatubo, especially in river valleys. It caused the devastation of low-lying areas and destruction of structures along its path. To protect the residential areas and farmlands during heavy rainfall, River embankments also known as mega-dikes were constructed.