It is now known as the source of chemical compounds now used in the treatment of cancer. Their discovery lead to one of the most important medical breakthroughs of the last century. However, more evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of the treatment. The Madagascar Periwinkle has given us 2 extremely important cancer fighting medicines, which are “Vinblastine” and “Vincristine”. These are two very important medicines, that treat two very serious diseases.
Plants treated with strain 103 showed an increase in 16.65% of shoot length, 20.16% in root length, 61.20% in leaf area and 83.29% in shoot dry weight, when compared to the control (table 3). Strain 109 (P. fluorescens), significantly increased root dry weight in
The Egyptians are thought to have had a large influence on the Greeks. The first recorded use of (essential) oils was as gifts or trade from the Egyptians, where they were instantly recognized for their many different uses. (Ancient Egypt Online, n.d.) The Greeks, however, were able to make huge advancements in the way plants and essential oils were utilized in medicine when physician Hippocrates began to study them. Long before aromatherapy essential oils were in common usage, many people used the actual plant to heal. Hippocrates is accredited with changing the way medicine was viewed and used healing plants as part of his “Hippocratic Theory.” (Falsetto, 2009) He believed strongly in the medicinal benefit of fumigation with aromatics and used fumigation in the city of Athens to combat the plague.
TITLE: SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS BACTEREMIA, A CAUSE FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS? Authors: Merjona Saliaj, MD, Sikka Gautam, MD, Norbert Brau, MD Institutions: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (Bronx); James J. Peters VA Bronx Medical Center North Central Bronx Hospital INTRODUCTION Pancreatitis associated with bacterial infection has been previously studied. Several case reports have described Salmonella as a possible cause of pancreatitis. Two retrospective studies have shown increased levels of pancreatic enzymes and clinical pancreatitis in patients infected with Salmonella enteritidis. A prospective matched study, 30 patients positive for Salmonella enteritidis, 16% exhibited increased serum lipase levels, however no pancreatic changes
While there were others who discovered vaccination before Jenner, such as Benjamin Jesty (1737–1816), Jenner’s research was the “first scientific attempt to control an infectious disease by the deliberate use of vaccination”. Furthermore, Jenner was ardent in his investigation and was persistent in publicising his vaccine. For instance, Figure 1 below shows an extract from a letter written by Jenner himself on the instructions for vaccine inoculation targeted to those who were interested in the smallpox vaccine. By 1800, his effort led to a widespread use of vaccination in majority of the European countries. This new knowledge on inhibition of the spread of contagious diseases was a reason that led to the ideology that the “right of the individual to contract and spread infectious disease should be suspended”.
Quinazolinone is a building block for approximately 120 naturally occurring alkaloids isolated till date from a number of families of the plant kingdom, microorganisms and animals. The first quinazolinone, i.e., 2-cyanoquinazolinone was synthesized in the late1860’s from anthranilic acid and was found to possess anti-convulsant activity. Interest in the medicinal chemistry of quinazolinone derivatives was stimulated in the early 1950’s with the elucidation of quinazolinone alkaloid i.e, 3-[ keto-(3-hydroxy-2-piperdiyl)-propyl]-4-quinazolone from an Asian plant Dichroa febrifugin, which is an ingredient of a traditional Chinese herbal remedy, effective against malaria. Methaqualone was synthesized for the first time in 1951 and it is the most well- known synthetic quinazolinone drug, famous for its sedative and hypnotic
The illness rapidly hit its “tipping point.” I think that is what the author is trying to explain to us. Everything like the increase in buying hushpuppies, to bad things like a syphilis epidemic has it’s breaking point known as it’s tipping point. Finally,this book is something extraordinary. It opens the human eye and shows that we should be more observant and pay more attention. Overall, this book has a lot of good points and very useful ideas to learn from.
Chemical structure Linezolid is the first member of the group Oxazolidinone antibiotics. Oxazolidinones (sulfoxide 1) were first characterized for their use in treating plant diseases in 1978. Six years later antibacterial properties were discovered, with greatly improved antibacterial properties relative to their progenitor compounds. It is usually these two compounds, which are referred to as the first true lead compounds in the oxazolidinone family (lead compound - compound that exhibits pharmacological properties which suggest its value as a starting point for drug development). Further structural discussion led to piperazine derivatives.Those compounds were selected for further modification as they combined excellent activity with an
Pfizer is the organisation behind well-known consumer items such as Listerine, Rolaids, Sudafed, and Visine, however the organisation’s most noteworthy income makers are its professionally prescribed medications. Pfizer 's marquee pharmaceuticals include Viagra, a treatment for erectile brokenness, Zoloft, an antidepressant, and Lipitor, a cholesterol-lowering pharmaceutical that is the top rated medicine on the planet, and the organisation’s products are showcased in more than 150 nations (Llamas S.a). 1.1 Explain what happened and what Pfizer was accused
when condoms were made from such materials as fish bladders, linen sheaths, and animal intestines. Around 1500 the first spermicides were introduced. In 1838 condoms began being made out of vulcanized rubber. In 1916 Margaret Sanger opens a birth control clinic in the United States of America. In 1938 diaphragms became a popular type of birth control.