Solar Cells Advantages And Disadvantages

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Hundreds of solar cells (also called photovoltaic cells) make up a solar photovoltaic (PV) array. Solar cells are the components of solar arrays that convert radiant light from the sun into electricity that is then used to power electrical devices and heat and cool homes and businesses. Solar cells contain materials with semiconducting properties in which their electrons become excited and turned into an electrical current when struck by sunlight. While there are dozens of variations of solar cells, the two most common types are those made of crystalline silicon (both monocrystalline and polycrystalline) and those made with what is called thin film technology. The majority of the solar cells on the market today are made of some type of silicon…show more content…
CZ Si is free from lattice defects; however, it contains residual impurities such as oxygen, carbon, and transition-metal ions. Oxygen introduced from a quartz crucible is beneficial for microelectronics, because the oxygen strengthens the wafers and can also be used for guttering defects from wafer surfaces. Oxygen reacts with the boron to form an electronically active defect that limits the quality of the material after illumination [4]. Magnetic confinement is used to reduce the amount of oxygen by transferring material from the crucible within the melt. Si grown by the float zone (FZ) process is the preferable method for solar cells of highest efficiencies because it has the lowest recombination losses. FZ Si with diffusion lengths up to 800 lm for 1 X cm material can be…show more content…
In the beginning of the “semiconductor era”, the rapid progress of silicon technology allowed production of Si solar cells with 15% efficiency. In the second stage (1970s), 17% efficiency Si solar cells were fabricated due to achievements in microelectronics (e.g. photolithography). The most significant results have been obtained in the third (1980s) and fourth (2000+) stages, and Si cell efficiencies close to 25% have been achieved. These efficiencies were due to improved contact and surface passivation of the cell, along the front and rear surfaces, as well as an improved understanding of the significant role of light-trapping in Si devices. For Si cells 80 μm thick, the maximum efficiency is

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