3. Results & Discussion 3.1 Moisture change 3.1.1 Effect of water contents in starch doughs The effect of water contents in the starch dough on moisture changes during conditioning times were shown in figure 1.Figure 1. The water content effect on the moisture change (%) of the wheat starch foam fabricated at 2000C temperature. The results were shown that the moisture change of a 45% water content in the starch dough was increased with storage times and reached to optimum at 3 days storage times. After 3 days, the moisture change was gradually declined.
degradate at different temperature7. Thermal degradation of CMCs possess an initial weight loss in the region of 30-160 °C is mainly due to the removal of loosely bound water (moisture) on the surface of cellulose4,22,30,38,45. CMCs depict the major degradation takes place in two-steps. First weight loss occurs between temperature around at 180-250 °C with 7.5 wt.% loss is ascribed to the depolymerization of hemicellulose, pectin and cleavage of glycosidic linkages of the samples46. The major weight loss occurs at increasing the temperature of 270-430 °C with 88 wt.% loss is due to the degradation of lignin and cellulose.
Fraction I was discarded due to the presence of high fatty substances, whereas fraction II was analysed for the free flavonoids in each of the samples. Fraction III of each of the test samples was dried and hydrolysed by refluxing with 7% H2SO4 (10 ml/gm residue) for 5 hours on water bath. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate extracted with ethyl acetate in a separating funnel. The ethyl acetate layer was washed with distilled water till neutrality and dried in vacuum. The residues were taken up in small volumes of ethanol separately and then subjected to various tests for
Add 3ml AlCl3 (10%) 5 min later. After 6 min, 2 ml 1 M NaOH was added and the total volume was made up to 10ml with distilled water. The solution was mixed well again, and the absorbance was measured against a blank at 510 nm with a (UV-VISIBLE Parkin Elmer Lambda 23 with win lab N6.0software.). The flavonoid content was calculated with quercetin as standard16. Reducing Power
GMS concentration and whipping time were significantly affected by foam density. From the table above, foam densities decreased as GMS and whipping time increases up to 2.5% and 15minutes respectively. The reduction in foam densities of all the varieties at whipping time of 9min to 15min and addition of GMS concentration of 1.5 to 2.5% is due to foam formation. This result was in agreement with the trend observed by Falade et al. (2003) who reported that the density of cowpea foam decreased steadily with increased whipping time and the concentration of the foaming agent (i.e., glyceryl monostearate and egg albumin), also Karim and Wei (1999) reported that as the concentration of methocel increased, the star fruit foam density decreased while its volume increased.
The contact angle of untreated fabric found 1490 (fig.2 (b)) it is noted that the hydrophobic nature due to lack of polar groups on the substrate. After the 2mins Oxygen plasma treatment the contact angle decreases from 149o to….. 0o, again while increasing the plasma treatment time, 2,3,4,5 the contact angle considerably reduced. In 6mins plasma treated surface shows the maximum reduction,
The pH reduces abruptly from the initial day and comes to a lower value at a 6.2 at the 9th day which denotes the acidogenic phase of the system. The Ph value started to increase from the 10th day and the pH at the days of highest gad production was 7.21 at the 18th day. The biogas gas production starts to increase rapidly from 13th day to 18th day indicating the methanogenic phase. The pH then remain more or less same and tends to higher value at the last few days of experiment. The pH of the digested slurry at the last days of reading is found to be
The graph is plotted having 4sinӨ along x-axis and βcosӨ along y-axis for the peaks of CdO with cubic phase. Consequently, the slope and y-intercept of the fitted time represent grain size and strain respectively. Thickness of the thin film samples determined by stylus profilometer was found to increase upto 1.6 µm for a precursor solution volume of 20 ml and then decreased to 1.3 µm for a volume of 25 ml. The reason for the decrease may be due to peeling of the film with the agglomerated powdery deposits due to homogeneous reaction. The number of crystallites per unit area (n) of the samples was found using the relation n= t / D3 (4) Where D is the grain size and t is the thickness of the
(Thiago et al., 2013). Moradiand his group studied the effects of temperature and volume fraction of biodiesel and diesel on the density and kinematic viscosity of blends They used five biodiesels: sunflower, canola, and soybean waste cooking oil edible tallow. Density and kinematic viscosity of mixtures were measured at several temperatures. Results showed that by reducing temperature and increasing the volume fraction of biodiesel, density and kinematic viscosity are increased (Moradi et al.,
The thickness of the ozone layer above Europe has decreased significantly since the beginning of the 1980s and has been declining of a rate of 8% per decade.6 The global trend in the winter/spring period at northern mid-latitudes is a 5.4% decrease per decade.6 There are gradual falls in chlorine concentrations in the troposphere while on their way to the stratosphere which show the international policies to control ozone-depletion substances are succeeding.6 The long life of the ozone depleters (chlorofluorocarbons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform) means the recovery of the ozone layer may not be complete until after