Photovoltaic cells, like batteries, generate direct current (DC) which is generally used for small loads (electronic equipment). When DC from photovoltaic cells is used for commercial or sold to electric utilities using the electric grid applications, which must be converted into alternating current (AC) power converters using semiconductor devices that convert DC into the mains. PVS historically they have been used to provide electricity in remote locations. However, a market for distributed PV generation can grow with the unbundling of transmission and distribution costs due to electricity deregulation. The implementation of numerous small-scale generators in electricity distribution feeders could improve the economy and reliability of the distribution
2015) 2.4. Energy Yield For the greatest energy yield, solar panels must aim to maximize their exposure time to sunlight. This is best done by solar trackers that orientate the panels to follow the sun. On a very cloudy day, a photovoltaic panel will generate about 40% of the electricity it would on a clear and sunny day. (How does cold weather impact on solar PV performance?
Solar electricity uses Photovoltaic (PV) modules to convert sunlight in to useable, storable, effective energy source. Photovoltaic is also known as the energy collector. The in which PV collector its energy is known as the photovoltaic effect. Alexander Edmund Becquerel describe the effect as the way PV cells create electricity through the energy residing in photons of light particular Sunlight. As the sun rays hit the PV module, the solar panel absorb some photons and the photons’ energy is transferred to an electron in the semiconductor material.
Due to the nature of , two components are required to have a functional solar energy generator. These two components are collector and a storage unit.Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Why people are not implementing solar passive techniques, in fact of being aware of it’s advantages ? Why is solar architecture not being incorporated in Punjab even when the government is providing the sufficient funds? How energy consumption has become the need of an hour?
Solar energy Solar energy is a renewable resource which can help us save other resources. Solar energy emits no toxins in the air, significantly reducing harmful air pollution and improving air quality. The environment does not just affect us but it also affects lakes, ocean, rivers, and other things. For example if every houses in new jersey has solar panels it can have an impact of removing two cars from the street. According to the environmental protection agency, using solar electricity to power i million houses would reduce greenhouse gas emission by 4.3 million and its the same thing as removing 850,000 from the street.Solar energy is one of the best sources to create or generate electricity.
This is a compact way to produce energy because of a solar module. A solar module is a packaged and connected room of solar cells. Many people use them to power houses, street lights, calculators, road signs, and much more. Albert einstein found out the theory of the photoelectric effect in the year 1905. In 2014 the United States alone added about 14
This solar panel is used as a component in a larger photovoltaic system to provide electricity for marketable and residential applications. As we know a single solar panel can only produce a finite amount of power, many installations hold several panels. This is called as a photovoltaic array. An array of solar panels is typically included in a photovoltaic installation, an inverter, batteries and interconnection wiring. Solar cells are usually electrically connected and encapsulated as a module.
In order to decrease the utilization of non-renewable energies to provide largeamount energy, one of the least complex methods to use the energy of sun is photovoltaic panels. Photovoltaic technologies must be sufficiently enhancing that can bemanufactured in huge scale, inexpensive and most noteworthy proficiency.There is a growing need for energy in the world and since the traditional energy sources based on the fossil fuels are limited and will be exhausted in future, PV solar energy is considered a promising energy source candidate. Large-scale application of PV solar energy will also contribute to the diversification of energy sources resulting in more equal distribution of energy sources in the world. The first practical use of solar cells was the generation of electricity on the orbiting satellite Vanguard 1 in 1958. These first solar cells were made from single crystal silicon wafers and had efficiency of 6 % .
The power consumption is increasing world wide to meet this demand we are generating power by conventional and non conventional energy sources .In non conventional energy sources PV is mostly used across world to generate the power to meet the power demand across world. Generating power through PV and integrating with the grid. The main drawback for not using PV panel is the efficiency of solar cell is very less and losses in power electronic interface while connecting with the grid. And one more drawback is quality of power due to partial shading. Where solar thermal panel tolerates shading, but PV modules are highly sensitive to shading .
In the other hand, Aubrecht (2006) stated that all solar energy devices redistribute thermal energy from one place to another and do not release additional thermal energy to the atmosphere. Instead of releasing excess heat energy into the atmosphere, solar devices only change the form of solar energy from heat or light into electricity and thus maintain the heat balance of the atmosphere. Solar devices like solar cells and concentrating solar thermal plants (CSP) uses photovoltaic effect and solar thermal method to generate electricity. According to Bockris (2009), solar light is focused on a boiler by the use of mirrors to increase the temperature of water inside the boiler in order to vaporize the water into steam to drive the